16.1. The introduction of repeat signs constitutes one of the main differences of procedure between print and braille music, for whereas, in the former, the necessities of sight-reading render the use of an extensive system of repeats inexpedient, in the latter, a great deal can be done towards the achievement of a good appearance, the saving of space, and, above all, ease in reading and memorizing, by the judicious use of this device.
16.2. The sign 7 is the most frequently used indication of a repeat. It may be used for the repetition of a note or chord, a beat or part of a beat, a measure or part of a measure; however, it is never used for the repetition of more than one measure.
16.3.1. A repeat always applies to what immediately precedes it. The number of notes which it includes depends on its position in the measure, obviously involving the exercise of judgment and musical knowledge.
16.3.2. Repeats should never, except in the most obvious and simple cases, "cross the beat." For instance, in Example 16.3.1-1, a little space could have been saved thus:
but to all but the most expert reader this version would be very misleading. The following example is, however, quite normal in appearance.
16.4. The sign 7 must not be used when the first chord or beat of a measure happens to be repetition of the last chord or beat of the preceding measure.
16.4.1. When the first chord or group of notes on a braille line is a repetition of the last chord or group on the previous line, the repeat sign must not be used even if the repeated chord or group is in the same measure.
16.5. Two or more repeats following one another are normally of the same value.
16.6. When it is desirable to have successive repeats of different value they must be separated by dot 3.
16.7. The sign 7 can be used for the repetition of one or more parts in conjunction with the in-accord and measure-division signs. When all the parts are repeated, only one repeat sign is needed; where some of the parts do not repeat, the sign must be used for each repeated part.
_>_?^\<>_R ''''''' _D'&H'^(<>7<K
16.8. The use of the slur in combination with the part-measure repeat involves some difficulty. The important thing to remember is that repeats should never in any way interfere with the clear perception of phrasing. The following examples should be studied very carefully:
(Note that it is not advisable to use the part-measure repeat in (a) above.)
16.9. A repeat does not include a tie on the last note or chord of the passage.
Apart from this exception a repeat includes all other ties.
16.10. If the repeated passage has a tie at the end of a measure, it is better to place the tie immediately before the first note of the following measure, especially when that measure is in a new line or is separated from the original repeat by an in-accord part.
16.11. It is possible to use the sign 7 for a passage played in a different octave from the original, the repeat being then preceded by the appropriate octave mark. It is necessary to mark the octave of the first note after such a repeat.
16.12. Great care must be exercised in the doubling of intervals, etc., in connection with repeats.
16.13. The use of repeats in conjunction with nuances is somewhat complicated, and great discretion is needed by the transcriber in this matter. When such nuances are indicated by the signs for staccato, accents, etc., or by such momentary directions as "sf", they can be included so long as mistakes similar to that shown at (a) below are avoided.
(a - bad)>SF.YIHJ777 NU<K
(b - good)>SF.YIHJYIHJ77 NU<K
16.13.1. The treatment of nuances of longer duration is illustrated by the following typical examples:
Examples could easily be multiplied, but enough has been written to justify the warning against the use of the sign 7 in doubtful cases.
16.14. When part of a measure is fingered, and is followed immediately by an exact repetition without fingering, the repeat sign may be used.
16.15. The repetition of short passages in unmeasured music is made possible by the use of the sign *7 placed before the first note of the fragment to be repeated. A special octave mark should be given to this note.
.>"!F'P<><"?+N<# K "M K M<L<K
_>@[-<N<- K ,55^<1<^D<H<_D"
(It must be clearly understood that the sign *7 is not itself a repeat sign, but is merely used to separate from the preceding text a fragment which is afterwards to be repeated.)
16.16. When the sign 7 is used for the repeat of a measure, it is written with a blank space on either side. The whole-measure repeat (unlike the part-measure repeat) may be used at the beginning of a new parallel, as illustrated in Example 22.24-1, but it may not be used at the beginning of a new section or page.
"DEFGHGFE 7 7 NU<K
A repeat should not be used for a measure in one meter (i.e. 3/4 time) with notes that are identical to a measure in another meter (i.e. 6/8 time). The two measures cannot technically be considered identical.
The rules given in Par. 16.7-16.13 for part-measure repeats should be carefully studied in connection with the measure repeat. The following examples illustrate the main points:
Example 16.16-2. (Par. 16.8.)
(braille) (a)"DCCEFGHGFCE 7 7 NU<K
(braille) (b);B"DEFGHGFE^2 7 7 NU<K
(braille) (a)"DCCEFGHGFE DEFGHGFCE
(braille) (b);B"DEFGHGFE 7^2 ;B7 N^2U<K
Example 16.16-4. (Par. 16.9.)
(braille)"DEFH@CHGFE 7 7 @CO?V<K
Example 16.16-5. (Par. 16.11.)
(print)"DEFGHIDJ DEFGHIDJ .;DEFGHIDJ NU<K
(braille)"DEFGHIDJ .7 ;7 ,NU<K
Example 16.16-6. (Par. 16.12.)
(braille).>.D00FEGFDEJ0 7 7 .Y<>"S+R+<K
Example 16.16-7. (Par. 16.13.)
(braille)>P"DEFGHGFE >CR'7 >F'7 "NU<K
16.16.1. When a measure is repeated three or more times, the appropriate number, with numeral prefix, follows the repeat sign without an intervening space. The note following such a repeat should have an octave mark.
(print)"DEFGHGFE DEFGHGFE DEFGHGFE
(braille)"DEFGHGFE 7#C "NU<K
The following typical examples show the application of Par. 16.7-16.13 to such passages.
Example 16.16.1-2. (Par. 16.8.)
(print)"?$C:C ?$C:C ?$C:C ?$C:C NV<K
(braille)"?$C:C 7#C C"NV<K
(print);B"?$: ?$:^2 ;B?$: ?$: N^2V<K
(braille) (a)"?CC$: ?$C: ?CC$: 7 CNV<K
(braille) (b);B"?$: 7^2 ;B7 7 N^2V<K
(print);B"?$: ?$: ?$: ?$:^2 V;8N<K
(braille) (a)"?CC$: 7 7 ?$C: V;8N<K
(braille) (b);B"?$: 7#C^2 V;8"N<K
Example 16.16.1-5. (Par. 16.9.)
(print)"?$: ?$: ?$: ?$:@C O?<K
(braille)"?$: 7#C @C"O?<K
Example 16.16.1-6. (Par. 16.11.)
(print)"?$\ .?$\ ?$\ .;?$\ ,NV<K
(braille)"?$\ .7 7 ;7 ,NV<K
16.16.2. With regard to Par. 16.12-16.13, the greater length of the passage involved makes it necessary to exercise care in the use of the measure repeat.
16.17. When the passage to be repeated is more than one measure in length, another method, known as "partial abbreviation", is used. This consists of the writing of two numbers together between blank spaces, the first showing how many measures must be counted back from the point already reached, the second showing how many of those measures are to be repeated. If the two numbers are identical, one figure only is required. When under these stated conditions, "one figure only is required", the device may be repeated as many times as the passage itself is repeated.
16.17.1. The first note following a partial abbreviation must always have an octave mark.
_>^Q--\[ ^[\]$ ^O$] ^]'FP #D#C
"\'G$\ ['H]: P]'G ( #D<K
16.17.2. Partial abbreviation may be combined with the slur so long as the phrasing is always made perfectly clear.
(print);B.?"\.?@C ?JIW ?"\.?@C ?JIW^2<K
(braille) (a).?CC"\.?@C ?JIW #B#A @C.?JICW<K
(braille) (b);B.?"\.?@C ?JIW #B^2<K
;B.?"\.?@C ?JIW^2 ;b?"\.?@C ?JIW^2<K
.?CC"\.?@C ?JICW #B<K
;B.?"\.?@C ?JIW^2 #B<K
;B.?"\.?@C ?JIW^2 ?"\.?@C ?JIW<K
.?CC"\.?@C ?JICW ?"\.?@C ?JIW<K
;B.?"\.?@C ?JIW^2 ?"\.?@C ?JIW<K
16.18. In partial abbreviation the tie is treated according to Par. 16.9.
(print).?"H.D$ ]FEDJ ?"H.D$@C
.$:V ?"H.D$ ]FEDJ ?"H.D$ :?V<K
(braille).?"H.D$ ]FEDJ #B#A @C.$:V
16.18.1. A tie sign is not usually juxtaposed with a numeral repeat. But exception is made when the entire passage is indicated by a repeat bar. At the end of such a passage it is possible that the partial repeat numeral has been used, at which point it is necessary to indicate that the last note must be tied to the first note of the passage to be repeated.
_FXF^L@CFXF^L@C fxX$'^1@C #B@C<2
16.19. The directions given under Par. 16.11-16.13 must be strictly followed in partial abbreviation. With regard to Par. 16.13 a further point may be noted. When the repeated measures are preceded by a different expression mark which quite clearly applies to every measure of the repeated passage, the word "sempre" (preceded by dot 5) may be added by the transcriber even though it may not appear in print.
>P"R.?W >CR'"[.$:? >C"JIHIJDEF>3
>SF.]'&Z$? 7"SEMPRE F'7 #D#B
(It will be seen that measure 7 is a repetition of measure 3, but it is safer to rewrite it owing to the absence of the .)
16.20. Partial abbreviation must only be used in the most obvious cases. Double figures and rhythmic divisions (such as #AF#AB #G#C etc.) should never be used. The following example is, however, quite legitimate owing to the unusual rhythmic shape of the passage.
.E'&EE $: ?W D'Z&DEJ :YIJD #E#C
16.21. A further method of abbreviation is by the use of the "segno". This differs from partial abbreviation in two ways: (a) the passage to be repeated may be of any length; (b) the repetition may be at any distance from the original passage.
16.21.1. The "segno" (Table 16 (A)) is followed immediately by one of the letters A, B, C, etc., according to its position as the first, second, third, etc., segno in the piece. The end of the passage to be afterwards repeated is shown by the sign * , placed after the last sign connected with the final note of the passage. This latter sign does not need a letter, since segnos must never overlap one another.
16.21.2. The repetition of the passage is shown by marking the segno (with its appropriate letter) preceded by dot 5, and followed without an intervening space by a number showing the number of measures to be repeated.
"[ .::?"GH S:: $]IHGH ['Y)IX[
+A .::?"GH SW[ \]$$* "OV: $]\.?
"['H]] \[*W.$ %?'*JIX[ "+A#C "OV<K
16.21.3. Partial abbreviation must never be used in combination with the segno unless the measures so abbreviated form part of the "segno" passage. (See measure 5 in the above example.)
16.21.4. All doubling of any kind which may be in progress at the point where the segno passage commences must be re-marked after the segno.
16.21.5. It is possible to use the segno both from and to any point in a measure, and, of course, in this case no number is given at the point of repetition. When the sign marking the end of the original passage (Table 16 (A)) occurs during a measure, it must be followed by the music hyphen and a blank space. The segno itself should never be written during a measure except at the commencement of a piece or section.
+A ": \W: W\\ [DJIH ]:: \JIHG $?$
":\] R*" "JD :JDEF :?W ?IJDE ?W[
"WHIJD W[\ ].:%? O" "+A<K
16.21.6. If the sign * coincides with a dotted double bar or any similar indication, it precedes such indications without an intervening space.
16.21.7. It is possible to modify segno repeats in the same manner as that explained in connection with partial abbreviation in respect to ties and expression marks (Par. 16.21.6- 16.21.8) but slurs cannot thus be changed, and any doubled signs must be re-marked after a segno repeat if they still remain in force (cf. Par. 16.21.4).
The first note after +A "+A or * must have a special octave mark.
16.21.8. Where possible, an embossed marginal star or similar marginal device should be placed at the beginning of a line containing the initial signs for the segno and at the end of a line containing the indication for the end of the original passage to be repeated. The segno is a difficult sign to locate in the text, and these marginal devices are a very real assistance to the reader.
The Braille Use of Da Capo
16.22. This form of repeat is used far more frequently in braille than in print, the words "da capo" being shown as in Table 16 (A) followed by a number indicating how many measures are to be repeated.
16.22.1. As an additional aid to the reader, the sign * is placed at the end of the original passage to be repeated (supplemented where possible by a marginal star at the end of the line, as explained in Par. 16.21.8 above).
It is also possible to use the braille da capo from and to any point in a measure, no number being then required; but this should only be done in the most obvious cases.
(In symphonic scherzos, minuets, etc., in which the opening section reappears after the trio without its former repetitions, the braille segno and da capo should be accompanied by the direction "(senza replica)", dot 5 being added before the first parenthesis, only if facsimile copy is requested.)
Repeats with Measure Numbers
[N. B. The device of measure-numbering here referred to is a braille convenience which has no reference to print usage.]
16.23. In music written "bar-over-bar" when measures are numbered in the braille text, these numbers can be effectively used as a substitute for the segno and braille da capo. The numbers of the first and last measures of the passage to be repeated are written in the lower part of the cell, preceded by the numeral prefix, and separated by the literary hyphen, thus:
16.23.1. In music written "section-by-section" for band and orchestral instruments (q.v.) [see Par. 29.1], with serial numbers for the sections, this number is given first in the upper part of the cell, thus:
(showing that measure 56, the first of the repeated measures, is to be found in section 8.)
16.23.2. This "section-by-section" method of indicating repeats must not be used in the same paragraph as the original passage (i.e. it cannot replace either the measure repeat or partial abbreviation.)
16.24. As with the segno and the braille da capo the first note after such a repeat must have an octave mark.
16.24.1. The reader is referred to Par. 16.21.7 above for details of the possibility of modifications in this form of repeat, and it should also be noted that the double bars, dotted double bar, pause and print comma may be added to any of the repeats used in braille music.
(For the combination of piano pedalling with the various forms of repeats, see Par. 20.8-20.11.)
Print Repeats (Table 16 (B))
16.25. The signs for double bars at end of composition and at end of measure or section (both given in the General Table of Signs) and the double bar preceded by dots are placed without an intervening space after the last sign connected with the measure in which they appear and, if they occur during a measure which is afterwards completed in the same line, they must be followed by the music hyphen and a blank space.
16.25.1. The signs for double bar followed by dots and prima and seconda volta are placed without an intervening space before the first sign connected with the measure in which they appear and, if they occur during the course of a measure in the middle of a line, they must be preceded by the music hyphen and a blank space.
16.25.2. The note following any of the above signs must have a special octave mark, and the prima and seconda volta, etc., should be followed by dot 3 before signs containing dots 1, 2, or 3.
16.25.3. The use of numeral repeats in identical voltas depends on whether the marginal numbers are those of the publisher or those of the braille transcriber. In the former instance, the marginal number is likely to be the same for each volta, thus rendering a numeral repeat rather awkward. If, on the other hand, the marginal number for the next volta is different, both voltas being identical, a numeral repeat may be used. Two or more voltas may be brailled in one line if there is room. (See Example 22.20.1-1.)
16.25.4. Braille repeats apply to the contents of a measure, not added signs such as double bars, voltas and print repeat signs. Braille repeats may be used with signs indicating the beginning or the end of a print repeat.
16.26. The signs for print segno, dal segno and encircled cross are treated in exactly the same way as the braille segno (Par. 16.21.1-16.21.8), the end of the passage to be repeated being shown as explained in Par. 16.21.1. Marginal stars should also be used here as with braille segno and da capo.
16.26.1. The indication given in Table 16 (B) is used to distinguish the print da capo from the braille equivalent, and such directions as "dal segno al fine" must be transcribed as they stand.
16.27. When repetition is indicated with a wavy or spiraling line, the sign from Table 16 (B) is used. It should be repeated in each bar or at the beginning of each parallel in unmeasured music, bar-over-bar format. In single-line format, it should be accompanied by an indication of time. (See Par. 6.7-6.9.)
16.28. In print books of technical studies, etc., it often happens that a melodic figure is repeated sequentially either up or down the scale of the key in which it is written.
16.28.1. It is possible to abbreviate such passages by writing the figure once, and afterwards, following each initial note of it by the sign - omitting the remaining notes, thus:
16.28.2. The repetition must, of course, be exact, the beat or beats comprising the figure being complete. The initial note of the figure to be sequenced may be an accidental; but the repetitions may not be modified in any way by accidentals, fingering, etc., and this device should generally be used only in a diatonic context. The sequence abbreviation must never be used unless the correct execution of the passage is absolutely clear.
16.28.3. It will, of course, be understood that the sign - cannot be doubled, whatever the length of the passage.
16.28.4. This device would naturally be used where the print is itself abbreviated, but even where the print is given in full the plan can be used. In non-facsimile transcription, the same sign is used (dots 36). In facsimile transcriptions, the sequence sign is modified by adding dot 3 (dots 36, 3), to inform the braille reader the sequence device was not used in the print. Thus, Example 16.28.4-1 represents facsimile transcription only.
16.28.5. The use of repeats in the initial figure is possible, so long as these are quite clear.
16.28.6. The device should not be used for such a passage as that shown by the square brackets in the following example.
"ZFGF777 :VV")IJG ;1(GHF!HIF"2"
16.28.7. It is also better to restrict this form of abbreviation to passages in which the notes are all of equal value.
16.29. When, in keyboard music, one hand moves parallel with the other at the distance of one or more octaves, the writing of the second part may be abbreviated by substituting for its notes a single octave interval (with an appropriate octave mark where the two hands are more than one octave apart.)
16.29.1. When such parallel movement extends over more than two measures, the octave interval is followed without intervening space by a number, with numeral prefix, indicating the number of measures contained in the passage.
.>_N@CDF<IJ "D<I"FJ.7 ;D.HJ<I\%GX
In music in which the parts for the two hands are written together, it is not necessary to separate the octave interval sign from the main text by blank spaces.
(For a special use of parallel movement in orchestral scores, see Par. 26.20.)
16.30. The parallel movement device should be used very sparingly and be limited to the provisions of Par. 16.29-16.29.1. In bar-over-bar disposition, the question of which octave sign should apply for the chords and the direction in which intervals are to be read should generally preclude the use of the device in chordal passages. With respect to the use of this device in orchestral scores, see Par. 26.19 and 26.20.