18.1. Marks of expression represented by symbols (Table 18 (A)) are placed before the notes affected and may be doubled. (See Example 6.2-1.) Exceptions to this practice are the music comma and fermatas which follow the note affected, and the swell which precedes it; those three are not doubled. When two or more of these signs are combined, an order similar to that in the example below is recommended.
18.1.1. The note following any of these signs does not require a special octave mark.
18.2. (11-97) The reversed accent sign (Table 18) is rarely used in print. Some braille references use it when referring to "smorzando". If that word or the abbreviation "smorz." appears in print, it must be transcribed as text. Use the new sign only if a reversed accent sign (pointing left) is printed.
18.3. The music asterisk (Table 17) is placed immediately before the note, interval, word or other sign to which it refers, and the note following it must have a special octave mark. The asterisk may be followed by a number or letter thus:
>59 ,9 "S EDI;NS ? NOTE IS GIV5
18.4. Expression marks represented by abbreviated words, a few of which are given in Table 18 (B) as specimens, are placed without any intervening spaces at the appropriate points in the music text, and the notes following such marks must always have a special octave sign. If two such indications occur in succession, the word sign must be used before each, e.g. >P>CR' .
18.4.1. It is permissible to place such marks at the end of a line followed by the music hyphen, but this should be done only when a good appearance is not otherwise possible, and the first note on the following line must, of course, have its special octave mark.
18.5. The signs >3 and >4 need not be used if they are immediately followed by some definite mark of conclusion or contradiction (see Example 18.6-1 below). Where they are needed to indicate the termination of a crescendo or decrescendo symbol, they are brailled after the note where termination occurs (and after all other signs which normally follow the note). After the use of either sign, the following note requires an octave mark.
18.6. Dot 3 should follow the markings, abbreviations and words in Table 18 (B) and (C) before signs (other than the word sign) containing dots 1, 2, or 3.
#J >C"[[ W>3'*"EFGFIJ >C.N??
.:?:D') W[\5JI'( >PIU P'>
18.7. Lines of continuation are shown in Table 18 (B) thus:
>CR'' for the first line,
>RIT-- for the second.
Their termination is shown unless some other sign terminates them.
18.8. The word sign should be used with complete words as well as with abbreviations. Parentheses are not used unless they appear in print. A single word should be preceded by the word sign. As with abbreviations, no space is left before the word sign or after the word. See Examples 18.8.3-1 and 18.9.1-1.
18.8.1. (11-97) A group of two or more words should be preceded and followed by word signs. The final word sign must be followed by a space. If the group occurs during a measure, it must be preceded by the music hyphen and a blank space. See Example 18.8.3-1.
18.8.2. (11-97) When there are no parentheses in print, there should be no parentheses in braille. When parentheses do occur, they follow the word sign in braille.
18.8.3. (11-97) When one or more words appear above a music line, they should be preceded and followed by word signs. No parentheses are used unless they appear in print.
.?" >RIT' E DIM''> "JI\$
18.9. The placing of expression marks in the text is a matter requiring some judgment on the part of the transcriber. The signs in Table 18 (A) are placed in the left or right hand in keyboard music as directed in the print, but such directions as those given in Table 18 (B) are not quite so easy to deal with.
18.9.1. Two examples are given below to illustrate the problems involved. In the first, the word "agitato" is printed above the treble staff and seems to apply to the eighths.
18.10. (11-97) It frequently happens in choral and orchestral parts that expression marks are placed during the course of sustained notes (e.g. placed halfway through a sustained whole note). In order to avoid the splitting up of such notes into smaller values joined by ties, thus giving a false picture of the print notation, a measure of suitable rests, each preceded by dot 5 to show that they do not appear in print, must be added after an in-accord sign with the expression marks placed at the correct points.
All such markings must be placed in this measure of rests.
18.10.1. In order to avoid the repetition of dot 5, the number of rests should be as small as possible, a quarter and eighth rest being shown as a dotted quarter rest, etc.
18.11. (11-97) When the ligatures or beams of a rhythmic group are fan-shaped rather than parallel, the notes of the group are to be executed as an accelerando or a ritardando. Standard note values are used, but the group is preceded by the sign for accelerando or ritardando and followed by the termination sign (Table 18). If the ligatures start together and fan outward on succeeding notes, an accelerando is indicated. If the fan-shape is reversed, a ritardando is indicated.
18.11.1. (11-97) When the fan-shape changes within a rhythmic group before the ligatures end, the signs above are used where the changes take place. The sign for a steady rhythm is used if the ligatures become parallel rather than fan-shaped within the print ligature. Example 18.11.1-1 is from music for Bayan. Between the first and last chords, the print has stems only, so the sign for vertical stems is used and doubled.