22.1. This section deals with the method of transcribing songs of every kind (including recitative) written for one voice, and it includes single voice parts in solo or choral ensembles, which are discussed in Par. 22.36-22.37.
22.2. In print, the music for a solo voice is printed on a single staff, and the signs in Tables 1-12, and15-18 are all used as far as they are needed. The special signs and adaptations for such music are given in Table 22.
22.3. In general, the vocal staff should be transcribed exactly as it stands, with one important difference. In print such directions as "rit.", "accel.", "a tempo", etc., are not usually given in the voice part since they can be easily read by the singer from the piano part, but, as this is not possible for the blind reader, these directions should be included in the braille transcription of the voice part, since they affect more than any other nuances the relation between singer and accompanist.
22.4. The arrangement of the braille score is an imitation of print usage, except that the words are given first. A line of words is alternated with the corresponding line of music, this latter being indented two spaces.
22.5. (11-97) Uncontracted braille should be used for the English word text of classical and popular songs. Two types of songs are exempt from this rule. Songs or chants in hymnals should remain in grade 2 braille, and school materials for grades K-6 are also exempt from this rule.
(a) When uncontracted braille is used for a song text, uncontracted braille should also be used for directions, tempos, moods, and Transcriber Notes.
(b) When vocal texts prepared in grade 2 are requested in uncontracted braille, an uncontracted copy should be provided. In this case the uncontracted words are written, text only, in verse or paragraph form as a part of the preliminary pages of the transcription.
22.6. A line-by-line rule should generally be maintained. Experience, however, has shown that a too rigid adherence to this principle can prove quite impractical, as when a single line of words results in an inordinately short line of music, or vice versa. Accordingly, a kind of controlled relaxation of the line-by-line rule is permissible under appropriate circumstances.
22.6.1. The word line may be extended by a run-over line in order to make possible a music line of suitable length. The run-over line is indented four spaces. (See Example 22.15-2.)
22.6.2. In order to avoid an unduly short word line, a music line which is cluttered with dynamics, tempo indications, etc., may similarly be extended by a suitably indented run-over line. (See Example 22.20.1-1.) This is also desirable when the music is of a florid or melismatic nature. (See Example 22.33-1.)
22.6.3. Care must be taken to preserve the basic format of line-by-line, and the practice of using a run-over line for both the words and the music in the same parallel should be considered a violation of the principle.
22.7. The first note in every line of music must have a special octave mark.
22.8. Measure numbers are not usually included in the braille transcription, the word text serving as the point of reference. In music in which word phrases are repeated many times, however, an occasional measure number, placed at the beginning of the word line, may be helpful to the reader.
,QUONIAM TU SOLUS SANCTUS1
#ABM _:C[W _?$\@C \C]$ ?')CYC[
TU SOLUS SANCTUS1 TU SOLUS
X^IJCDECF GCFHGFCZCYC E_J"
#BA TU SOLUS SANCTUS1
The phrasing slur is not often used in print editions. The following example illustrates it.
,TU SOLUS ALTISSIMUS1
9TU9 SOLUS ALTISSIMUS1
;B_W X_D_!C%(IXG "EJ%\^2<K
22.9. The portamento sign is placed between notes at the point indicated in the print. If there is also a syllabic slur, the portamento sign should be placed after it.
22.10. The breath signs are placed at the points where they occur in the print, being inserted in the music text without intervening spaces or special octave marks for the following notes. (See Examples 22.12.5-1 and 22.12.5-2)
22.11. The treatment of hyphens and of ties and slurs as they relate to the end of one parallel and the beginning of another needs very careful attention on the part of the transcriber.
22.12. A clear distinction must be made between the normal division of a word at the end of a line and rather abnormal division of a syllable whose vowel content is to be sustained into the next parallel.
22.12.1. For normal syllabic division, the hyphen is placed once at the end of the line, according to ordinary literary practice, and no hyphen is to be used at the beginning of the next parallel.
22.12.2. When the vowel content of a syllable is to be carried over to the next parallel, sometimes necessitated by the florid nature of the music, the letter, or group of letters, representing the vowel sound which is thus carried over must be written twice - first, at the end of the line in which that word begins, followed by a hyphen; then at the beginning of the next corresponding word line, preceded by a hyphen. The following words will illustrate sustained vowel content:
22.12.3. "Ta- -ale", "tai- -ail", "lieu- -ieu". If, within a group of letters which comprise the vowel sound in question, a contraction is normally used, a contraction may be used at both points, thus: "cr(ow)- -(ow)d", "t(ou)- -(ou) (ch)". However, a contraction which includes a letter that is not part of the vowel content may not be used at either point: "fai- -aint", "gla- -ance", "si- -in", "day- -ay", "kn(ow)- -(ow)", "r(ou)- -(ou)nd". In the word "teach", the "ea" contraction cannot be used because of its proximity to the hyphen: "tea- ea(ch)". The situation is different in the case of the next example: "b(ea)u- -eauti(ful)". Some additional illustrations should suffice to sum up most possibilities:
"(th)ey- -ey ", "I- -i", "we- -e", "y(ou)- (ou)", "fe- -ence", "doo- -oor", "tau- -au(gh)t".
22.12.4. In the music lines, the carrying over of the vowel sound is shown by syllabic slurs (single or double) and ties. If a vowel sound is to be carried from the last note of one music line to the first note of the next corresponding line, a slur is written after the last note and before the first of their respective lines. The tie is treated in the same manner. When three or more of a group of notes, through which a vowel sound is sustained, are at the end of a line, the double slur is used after the first, regardless of the number of carry-over notes in the next line.
22.12.5. If doubling the syllabic slur is warranted at the beginning of the next line, the double slur should be used after the first note of the syllable, even if that note is the last note of its line. Doubling the syllabic slur at the beginning of a line is warranted if there are four or more notes through which the vowel is continued. Termination of such doubling is indicated in the usual way. Restated syllabic slurs and ties must precede all other signs, with the exception of voice initials, parenthetical expressions, strain repeats, and key and time signatures.
TU SOLUS ,SANCTUS1 TU SOLUS ,DO-
,AND THAT ,HE SHALL STAND AT THE
V"WW .P] "T'@C W',/HCGF
.N'@C .?'CC%IHGC .P'@C $'GECDC
-AY UPON THE EARTH4
22.13. Apart from print repeats in the music text, the only braille repeats used are the measure repeat, simple part-measure repeats, and the braille segno, this latter being available for very long and very obvious repeats of words or music or both (e.g. the final repetition in an aria after the middle section).
22.14. (11-97) The repeat sign for words or phrases is placed before and after the word or phrase to be repeated, in both instances without intervening spaces. To avoid confusion, the "in" contraction should not be used at the beginning or end of a word, unless the word beginning with "in" is capitalized, italicized, or preceded by punctuation marks, and the ending with "in" is followed by punctuation. Under these conditions, as well as in the middle of a word or as a whole word, the contraction may still be used. Contractions are not used in songs except for hymns, chants and music for grades K-6.
22.15. If the word or phrase is sung twice, the sign stands as in Table 22. If it is sung three times, the sign is doubled before (but not after) it, and on the rare occasions when a word or phrase is given more than three times to music and words occupying only one braille line and its extension (if a run-over line is used), the sign is preceded by a number with numeral prefix showing the number of repetitions.
Example 22.15-1. One repetition
.GC&C(G &CYIX.GC&C(G &C%(CI"[<K
Example 22.15-2. Two repetitions
99,ICH LIEBE DICH9 IN ,ZEIT UND
"G I'&$XI D'![XD F'"!IIJD F'Z:<K
Example 22.15-3. Three repetitions
.E'Y W\I'( ]:H'! W\G'( [C.:C%? o<K
22.16. It frequently happens, especially in Italian texts, that two or three syllables or vowels are merged together on one note and the sign for this device is placed after the note affected. In the word text, the syllables or vowels are enclosed in quotation marks. If punctuation follows the merge, it is placed after the closing quotation mark. Merged syllables should be indicated in braille only when they are marked in print
,FINCH! L'A8RIA ! AN0COR BRUNA"
8E IL0 MONDO TACE4
22.16.1. If quotation marks are already being used for normal literary purposes, the quoted passage will have to be enclosed in so-called single quotes while the merged syllables are still between regular quotation marks.
22.17. When songs are printed in two or more languages, it frequently happens that the number of syllables in a measure varies with the different texts. This is shown in the print (a) by the layout of the words without any special markings in the music, or (b) by stems in opposite directions in the music indicating differing note values.
(a) is represented in braille by the sign _C showing that the slur applies to one language only.
,YOU WHO HAVE KNOWLEDGE1
8,VOI0 CHE SAPETE1
WHAT IS LOVE'S SIGN1
CHE CO 8SA!0 AMOR1
(b) is transcribed as it stands, either with stem signs (1) or with in-accord (and, if necessary, measure-division) signs (2).
,AND MY MOTHER HAS MA8NY A0
,MEINE ,MUTTER HAT MANCH'
GARMENT OF GOLD4
22.18. The sign _C may be similarly used for a variation of syllables in one or more verses of a hymn or strophic song.
22.19. When, as in French texts, a mute syllable is merged into the following one and is therefore not actually sung, it is followed by dot 3.
,C'EST L'HEURE' O) SENTENT BON LES
22.20. The relaxation of the line-by-line rule in transcribing strophic songs, referred to in Par. 22.6, occurs at the end of the first verse: (a) when details are supplied about the endings of the remaining verses; (b) when the words of the remaining verses are given without any music text. The following example shows the method to be used in such songs.
22.20.1. It will be seen that the details concerning the endings of the various verses could not be included in one line of music text and are, therefore, given a fresh line. The remaining word text is so tabulated that the verse numbers stand out in the margin beyond the lines of words and are placed in parentheses.
,DAS ,WANDERN IST DES ,M\LLERS
MMM VX<L" <7"G GJI.F ZCGECJ"
,LUST1 DAS ,WANDERN4 ,DAS
"G.E D'C!JX VXG
,WANDERN IST DES ,M\LLERS ,LUST1
DAS ,WANDERN4 ,DAS MUSS EIN
.E D'C!JX VX)CY ED"
SCHLECHTER ,M\LLER SEIN1 DEM
NIEMALS FIEL DAS ,WANDERN EIN1
"G .$E&CZ ?JG .$E&CZ ?JX MMM
7#B7 9,VOM ,WASSER HABEN WIR'S
GELERNT1 VOM ,WASSER49 ,DAS HAT
NICHT ,RAST BEI ,TAG UND ,NACHT1
IST STETS AUF ,WANDERSCHAFT
BEDACHT1 #C9DAS ,WASSER49
(The remaining verses should follow in order as shown above.)
22.21. If in a strophic song a variation of syllables or a mark of expression, etc., occurs in the second or following verses, the measure or part measure is written again after an in-accord sign, preceded by the number of the verse (written in the lower part of the cell with the numeral prefix) in which the change occurs. Small variations in the actual melody may also be treated in this way.
,WHO IS ,SYLVIA8 ,WHAT IS SHE1
,IS SHE KIND AS SHE IS FAIR8
#DM .N'[ [\U<>#2"[C\VW "S'] ]C$<K
22.22. (11-97) When songs are transcribed into braille in any other language than that of the country in which the braille is published, the word text of that language must be transcribed in uncontracted braille. In this case, the accented letters should be shown with their appropriate signs--thus, umlauts in German and the various special accents for French, Italian, Spanish, etc. Uncontracted braille must also be used for the English word text. See Par. 22.5.
22.23. An outline of the voice part should be included in the accompaniment to assist the player in memorizing his part. This outline is placed above the right-hand part marked "> . Only notes, ties and rests are necessary in this outline. General directions such as "Tempo I" or "piu mosso" should be placed above this solo outline. Directions should not appear between the solo outline and the right-hand part.
Method: Bar over Bar
J ">'X M '''''''' UVX"D
.>'X V"?+-"[0-7 .?+-7.[0-7
_>@G- @]'-G-7 7
(When this device is used in accompaniments for more than one voice, notes indicating important entries in ensemble vocal music are inserted by this means in such accompaniments.)
22.24. If the key and compass are to be indicated, this information should be given on a separate line, above the line which gives the tempo, the key and time signatures, etc. The compass is shown in music notation, with the lowest note (preceded by the music prefix) followed immediately by the highest, closed by a double bar, thus:
,ORIG9AL ,KEY1 2,A ,FLAT1 ,'<"$<.[<K
,LENT ET CALME4 #D<.C
22.25. In chant or canticles, the reciting note is written as provided in Table 1. The text to be sung on the reciting note is enclosed in a special bracket (Table 22), and the pointing sign that looks like a print accent or prime symbol, is represented by the appropriate sign, between spaces (Table 22).
#A4 "8,B.S$ 2 ! ,"L1 !01 ,GOD (
"8HE HAS -E 6HIS P &01 SET !M
7#A7 ,I W EXALT Y1 ,O 95 ,GOD
MY K+1 99 & B.S YR "N =EV- 95 ]
7#B7 ,E "D 95 W ,I B.S Y 99 &
PRAISE YR "N =EV- 95 ] & "E4
22.26. The format for ensemble vocal music must conform to that of solo music. The layout of ensemble vocal music is a logical extension of the format for solo music, the chief difference being the variable multiplication of lines. Thus the word line(s) will always appear above the music lines in each parallel.
22.26.1. The style used for choral and other ensemble music is bar-over-bar (q.v.). The initials of the voices (see Table 22) or characters (see Par. 22.38.1) are only given in the first parallel of each page at the commencement of their respective lines, unless a change in the parts or characters renders their re-marking necessary.
22.26.2. It is not necessary to give a special octave mark to the first note of each measure, but the first note on every line must be so marked.
>S'MK MK '''''''' U"SCTN
>A'MK MU"OC ''''' PQRC]C$C
>T'MU_SC TNOC?CWC ?["ZN
>B'U_OCPQ RC]C$C]:R@C RQ&
.OC?CWC?[.O@C ON) SU<K
"]:(Q ''''''' &Z M<K
_)! ''''''''' MU"O@C ON<K
_ZM ''''''''' U!%R [CC*HGFGECF<K
(For the use of tracker dots in this example, see Par. 28.6.)
22.27. When two languages are given, the original language is written closest to the music. For ensemble music in two languages, all lines of each language are blocked together. Text lines of the translated language begin in cell 1, original language text lines begin in cell 3, and music lines begin in cell 5. (See Example 22.38.1-1.)
22.28. In multi-language songs, operas, oratorios or other musical scores, each language should be treated independently and written as follows:
(a) All literary code rules apply to the English-language portions including any foreign words or phrases that occur in that portion.
(b) Each foreign language should be written with no contractions and with the braille signs for the foreign accents appropriate to that language. The foreign accent signs should be listed in the Transcriber Notes.
(c) If a word or phrase from one foreign language is inserted into another foreign language (such as the name Aida in Spanish text), dot 4 should be used before accented letters of the inserted word or phrase and no contractions are used. When an English phrase or name such as "Webster Jones" is found in a foreign text, it becomes the second "foreign" language and is uncontracted.
22.29. The tenor part usually appears in the print with the treble clef, printed an octave higher than its actual sound, but in braille it is the actual sound that is always given.
22.30. The words are given above the highest part in the vocal parallel, and the music lines are indented two spaces.
22.31. When all the parts have the same words, even if they do not happen to sing them at the same moment, only one line of words is given. This line may be extended by a run-over line, however, as explained in Par. 22.6.1.
>S1'VX>F"I.EF GCC2(=&CGHGF :"[V<K
>S2'VX>F"GID ECC2&ZYCEEED ::V<K
>A' VX>F"EE_I "[IJCIH ]]V<K
>T' VX>F"IGF :E:_I '''''' [[V<K
>B' VX>F_EGI ":E_HCI^I _::V<K
22.31.1. If there is a slight variation of the words in one part, such as the repetition of a syllable, word or phrase, the variation should be surrounded by word signs and suitably initialled for the voice in which it occurs, and if this procedure occupies more than one braille line the following line must be still further indented two spaces.
22.32. If there is a variation in the words of more than one part, each part should have its own line of words. Just as it is unnecessary to initial the second and succeeding parallels in the music (Par. 22.26.1), the initialing of word lines is only necessary in the first parallel of the page, unless there is a change in the number of word lines. In any case, if each voice part requires a separate line of words, it is not advisable to use run-over lines. Thus, the second parallel of Example 22.34.1-1 needs no initialing.
,ET IN TERRA >B' IN TERRA> PAX4
>A' X>FF"[CH\ \]\V<K
>T' VV>FF"EE $::V<K
>B' >FF"E_E*?JJ [_:^\V<K
22.33. Runovers should not be encouraged in the music lines of ensemble music, unless the number of lines is temporarily reduced to one, thus:
,PRAISE THE ,LORD IN SONGS OF
>B'>F_N@C DCCIJDO@C EJDEP@C
22.34. In "Bar over Bar" (Par. 28.9), it is stated that a parallel must be completed on the page on which it begins. In choral and other ensemble vocal music, where a parallel may have from five to ten or more lines, it is often impossible to keep this rule, and in such cases the vertical alignment on the first page should be disregarded and, where necessary, replaced by a fresh vertical alignment on the second page.
22.34.1. The use of hyphens in the word lines and ties and slurs in the music lines is subject to the same considerations as spelled out in Par. 22.11 - 22.12.5.
(Note in the following example the spacing after the initials in the word text to secure a vertical alignment of the first letter in each line.)
S1' 9,KYRIE9 E-
S2' ,KYRIE ELEISON1
A' ,KYRIE ELEISON1
>A' >F"]'G$V XIG%EWV
>T' >F_W'I\V GCI%"EG\V
>B' >F^W'J?V %:'E$V
.?'"JGCH[ ''''' ECH@C(C=HN<K_<L
%_['IWX*I ''''' RQ<K_<L
22.35. Where a part is temporarily divided, the sign / must be placed before the first measure in which the division occurs as a warning to the reader, and the following note must have a special octave mark. Division of the parts is indicated by the presence of intervals or in-accords in that part. These are always read downward in the soprano and alto and upward in the tenor and bass parts.
>S'"SCCW? /.OCP<>.O'CDCJ .&+<K
>S'>P>C"SCCW? /.OC_KCP# >D.&+<K
>A'>P>C"O'CC$ ]SC\ ''''' >D"!<K
>T'>P>C_Q'C[C /"OC_P<>"Z >D_&0<K
>B'>P>C_O'C?C ) '''''''' >D^!<K
22.36. The numbers indicating pages and staves in the print score, and all letters or numbers printed as starting directions for the benefit of conductors and choirmasters, should be placed above (or as near as possible to) the first note of the measure to which they apply, and should be written above the highest part in the parallel.
22.37. In transcribing single voice parts the rules given under "Solo Music" should be followed, with the exception that, since all nuances are printed in every part in the print, they must be included in the braille transcription. (See also Par. 18.10 and Examples 18.10-1 and 18.10-2.)
22.38. Opera format is a synthesis of solo and choral styles, but with some important additional features. Two languages are usually given in the text and character names are indicated by an initial. The combination of characters changes frequently in ensembles. A list of characters, with identifying initials, should be given at the beginning of any ensemble transcriptions.
22.38.1. The character's initial appears first as an uncapitalized letter, followed by dot 3. Whenever a group of singers changes, a new set of initials must be given in both sets of words, as well as in the music lines. (See Par. 22.32.)
,DON ,GIOVANI """""""""""""""""""""""" G
,Z]L9A """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""" Z
,MASETTO """"""""""""""""""""""""""""" M
,LEPORELLO """"""""""""""""""""""""""" L
G' ,I ADORE Y1 MY D>L+ ,Z]L9A6
G' ,SEI PUR VAGA1 BRILLANTE ,ZERLINA6
>G'X_JJ *IJD_GHI WJVX
Z' ,PL1SE MY "L6
M' ,SEE H] FLIRT+ & FL\NC+6
Z' ,SUA BONTA6
M' ,LA BRICCONA FA FESTA6
>Z'VX.$G :XVX M VXX"
>M'M VXX_EE $'$F :EX"
L' ,I ADORE Y1 ,LOLITA & ,N9A6
L' ,SEI PUR CARA1 ,GIANOTTA ,SANDRINA6
7AM;G/ ! GIRLS1 IMITAT+ 8 MA/]7
>L'_JJ *IJD_GHI WJ"
M' ,H[ ,I WI% ,I CD GIVE H] A TR\NC+6
M' ,TOCCA PUR CHE TI CADA LA TESSA6
>M'_:E DDD7 WJ<K
22.38.2. The matter of stage directions may be problematical. Single words or short phrases may be placed in the word line. Longer phrases should be placed below the singer to which they apply (See Example 22.38.1-1.) In some scores the directions are numerous, and in order to avoid cluttering the braille transcription, these may be numbered and placed on separate pages at the end of the scene or act. These numbers appear at the appropriate point in the music line and are preceded by the italic sign with blank spaces on either side. (See Example 22.38.3-1.)
22.38.3. When a transcriber is asked to provide a solo part from a vocal ensemble work, short cues of three or four bars should be written in where there are long rests. Such cues are written as in-accords with the measure rest representing the solo part, appearing first in the in-accord. In the cued part, only ties are included - not dynamics or marks of phrasing. It is also helpful to include the words as in Example 22.38.3-2. Observe that the initials for both parts are given only in the parallel where the cue appears.
,GRETEL """""""""""""""""""""" G
,HANSEL """""""""""""""""""""" H
G' ,FATHER1 MOTHER1
>G' .#F .["IX7 >,PIU ANIMATO>
H' ,SEE THERE1 THE MANKIN1
>G' .! M
>H' .#G UVX"I .$X"I.F"IV
(In note section)
.#F4 ,RUSHES HORROR-STRUCK UNDER
THE TREE AND FALLS ON HER KNEES1
HIDING HERSELF BEHIND ,HANSEL4
.#G4 ,AT THIS MOMENT THE MIST
LIFTS ON THE LEFT2 A LITTLE GREY
MAN IS SEEN WITH A LITTLE SACK
ON HIS BACK4
Example 22.38.3-2. Hansel's part from Hansel & Gretel
G' ,LEFT FOOT THEN1 ,ROUND ABOUT AND
H' ,WITH YOUR HEAD YOU 99NICK"9
,WITH YOUR FINGERS YOU