BRL: Braille through Remote Learning


BRL Courses
  • Introduction to Braille
  • Transcribers Course
  • Special Codes Course

    BRL Reference Desk
  • Summary of Rules
  • Contractions Lookup
  • Contractions List
  • Braille only contractions
  • Problem Words
  • Webster's Dictionary
  • Braille Formats (BANA rules for transcribing textbooks)
  • Reading List

    Other Resources
  • Contact instructor
  • Online gradebook
  • Flashcard program (Java)
  • Downloadable Software
  • Braille Supplies

    Other Links
  • American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
  • Braille Authority of North America (BANA)
  • National Braille Association (NBA)
  • National Library Service (NLS, Library of Congress)

  • Text Version

    13. Final-letter Contractions

    1. Are subject to the general rules for the use of contractions.
    2. May never represent whole words.
      less ally

    3. May be used only in the middle or at the end of a word.
      ele(ment)al m(en)tal
      b(less) lesson
      c(ance)r ance(st)or

    4. May be used at the beginning of a line in a divided word.

    5. May never be preceded by the apostrophe or the hyphen.
      con-(st)i-tu-tion grey'(ou)nd
      re(st)-less-ness re-ally
      com-m(en)t-(ed) 'tion!

    6. The contraction ness may be used in easily read words, but never when the root word ends in en or in.
      gov(er)(ness) (ch)iefta(in)ess
      b(ar)o(ness) citiz(en)ess

    14. Short-Form Words

    1. May be used as parts of words as well as whole words.
      (above)bo(ar)d un(necessary)
      (be)(little)d (first)-born
      c(immediate)ly (good)(ness)

      1. May never be divided at the end of a line, but may be separated from anmy added syllable.

      2. May never be used as parts of words unless the original meaning is retained.
        (sh)(ou)ld(er) mu(st)a(ch)e
        bloodlett(er) Port Said/TD>

      3. May not be used in unusual words.

      4. The short forms after, blind, and friend are used when followed by a consonant, but may not be used when followed by a vowel unless the vowel begins a line in a divided word.
        (after)ma(th) (blind)(ness) (friend)ly
        aft(er)e(ff)ect (bl(in)d(ing) (be)fri(en)d(ed)

    2. May represent a whole proper name, but never part of a word in a proper name.
      (Th)omas (Little) Jimmy Doolittle
      (The) Quicksilv(er) Fri(en)d(sh)ip Hei(gh)ts

    3. May be used as parts of common words that are not regarded as proper names in the titles or headings of books, chapters, articles, or songs and in the names of companies or organizations.
      (The) (Great)e(st) (St)ory (Ever) Told
      N(one) (such) Bak(ing) Co.
      (Children)s Press

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