BRL: Braille through Remote Learning


BRL Courses
  • Introduction to Braille
  • Transcribers Course
  • Special Codes Course

    BRL Reference Desk
  • Summary of Rules
  • Contractions Lookup
  • Contractions List
  • Braille only contractions
  • Problem Words
  • Webster's Dictionary
  • Braille Formats (BANA rules for transcribing textbooks)
  • Reading List

    Other Resources
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  • Online gradebook
  • Flashcard program (Java)
  • Downloadable Software
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    Other Links
  • American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
  • Braille Authority of North America (BANA)
  • National Braille Association (NBA)
  • National Library Service (NLS, Library of Congress)

  • Text Version

    2. Choice between Alternative Contractions

    1. Preference is given to the contraction that saves the most space.
      me(and)(er) not M(ea)nd(er)(th)(ence) not (the)nce
      (one)(ness) not on(en)essbub(ble) not bu(bb)le
      (with)(er) not wi(the)rn(ation) not na(tion)

    2. Contractions and, for, of, the, and with are used in preference to any other contractions unless more space would be used.
      e(ar)(the)n not e(ar)(th)(en)bro(the)r not bro(th)(er)
      ba(the)d not ba(th)(ed)

    3. One-cell contractions are usd in preference to two-cell contractions.
      adh(er)(en)t not ad(here)nt(st)on(ed) not (st)(one)d
      prison(er) not pris(one)r(sh)ad(ow) not s(had)(ow)
      ha(dd)ock not (had)dockphon(ed) not ph(one)d

      Exceptions: the ence contraction is used before the letters d and r.
      (com)m(ence)d not (com)m(en)c(ed)f(ence)r not f(en)c(er)
    4. Any one-cell contraction is used in preference to the double-letter or ea contractions.
      sac(ch)(ar)(in)e not sa(cc)h(ar)(in)ep(ed)dle not pe(dd)le
      (of)f(er) not o(ff)(er)af(for)d not a(ff)ord
      hob(ble) not ho(bb)lede(ar) not d(ea)r

    5. Preference is given to the contraction that more nearly approximates correct pronunciation.
      (wh)(er)(ever) not (where)v(er)(wh)(er)e'(er) not (where)'(er)
      di(spirit)(ed) not (dis)pirit(ed)

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