BRL: Braille through Remote Learning


BRL Courses
  • Introduction to Braille
  • Transcribers Course
  • Special Codes Course

    BRL Reference Desk
  • Summary of Rules
  • Contractions Lookup
  • Contractions List
  • Braille only contractions
  • Problem Words
  • Webster's Dictionary
  • Braille Formats (BANA rules for transcribing textbooks)
  • Reading List

    Other Resources
  • Contact instructor
  • Online gradebook
  • Flashcard program (Java)
  • Downloadable Software
  • Braille Supplies

    Other Links
  • American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
  • Braille Authority of North America (BANA)
  • National Braille Association (NBA)
  • National Library Service (NLS, Library of Congress)

  • Text Version

    6. Part-word contractions

    1. As whole-word contractions
      1. Contractions ar, ed, er, gh, and ow
        1. Are subject to the general rules for use of contractions.
        2. Are used wherever they occur within a word.
          (ar)rival (ed)ucate (Er)ie
          b(ar)t(er) b(ed)d(ing) c(er)amics
          ne(ar) cre(ed) (ch)e(er)

          (gh)o(st) (ow)n
          r(ou)(gh)ly h(ow)l
          wei(gh) br(ow)

        3. The contractions ed, er, and ow have no word meanings, so they are used when shown standing alone.
          (Ed) [the name] (er) [vocal sound] (ow) [exclamation

      2. Contractions ing and ble
        1. Are subject to the general rules for use of contractions
        2. May never begin a word, but may begin a line in a divided word.
          (in)got bl(ed) go(ing)s em(ble)m
          s(ing)ly peb(ble) go-

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