BRL: Braille through Remote Learning


BRL Courses
  • Introduction to Braille
  • Transcribers Course
  • Special Codes Course

    BRL Reference Desk
  • Summary of Rules
  • Contractions Lookup
  • Contractions List
  • Braille only contractions
  • Problem Words
  • Webster's Dictionary
  • Braille Formats (BANA rules for transcribing textbooks)
  • Reading List

    Other Resources
  • Contact instructor
  • Online gradebook
  • Flashcard program (Java)
  • Downloadable Software
  • Braille Supplies

    Other Links
  • American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
  • Braille Authority of North America (BANA)
  • National Braille Association (NBA)
  • National Library Service (NLS, Library of Congress)

  • Text Version

    7. Whole word contractions: his, was, were, be, in, enough

    1. May never be in contact with any letter, word, contraction, or punctuation.
      hi(st)ory be(en) (Wh)o was?
      wasn't bride-to-be Walk in.
      w(er)ewolf son-in-law "Be (yourself)."

    2. May be preceded by composition signs.
      hi(st)ory be(en) (Wh)o was?
      (was) (sh)e at (the) (part)y? (In) (the) (right) side, pl(ea)se! (Enough) is (en)(ou)(gh). (Be) (good) (enough) (to)(sh)(ow) h(er) in. (Were) (you) (there)? (The)y w(er)(en)'t (there), we w(er)e.

  • Rules for Use of Lower-Sign Contractions
    1. Any number of lower-sign contractions and punctuation signs may follow one another without a space provided that one of them is in contact with a character containing dot 1 or dot 4.
      "(to)(dis)(en)tangle (by)re(in)-
      (con)t(in)(en)tal c(ar)n(ation)

    2. When two or more unspaced lower-sign contractions would follow one another and not be in contact with an upper sign, the last lower-sign contraction must not be used. the italic sign is not considered an upper sign.
      (com)in' (dis)en-

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    Copyright © 1998