Braille Code of
Chemical Notation



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Names of chemical compounds may contain upper- and lower-case English letters, non-English letters, numerals, punctuation, different type forms, small upper-case letters and other symbols. In print, numbers and/or letters may be separated by commas with no space following the comma. Follow the print, but use the numeric or letter indicator before each "single letter" or number. The print type form in names of chemical compounds must be duplicated in braille.

8.1 Print Form. It is essential to follow the print exactly.

    Example 8.1-1: n-butyramide


    Example 8.1-2: L-1-Tosyl-2-phenylethyl-chloromethylketone


    Example 8.1-3: Guanosine 5' -diphosphate-3' -diphosphate

    ,guanos9e #5'-diphosphate-

    Example 8.1-4: 2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid

    #2,#4-dinitrob5zoic acid

    Example 8.1-5: (FH4 stands for tetrahydrofolate.)

    Example 8.1-6: dichlorodiaminepalladium(II)


    Example 8.1-7: N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine


    Example 8.1-8: -ketoglutarate


    Example 8.1-9: 3-chloro-2,3-dimethylbutanoic acid

    #3-*loro-#2,#3-dime?ylbutanoic acid

    Example 8.1-10: 5 ,7 -dihydroxy-11-ketotetranorprostane-1,16-dioic acid

    #1,#16-dioic acid

    Example 8.1-11:

    N-acetylmuramyl-pentapeptide- -(4 1)-N-acetylglucosamine

    .b-(4 $o #1)-.;,n-acetylglucosam9e

8.2 Contractions. All contractions of English Braille, American Edition are used, except that care must be taken not to contract letters which overlap pre-fixes, suffixes, substituents, or functional groups. Use Nemeth Code rules when contractions are in contact with indicators and symbols of grouping, comparison, and operation.

    Example 8.2-1: dinitrophenol


    (di-nitro-phenol) (di is a prefix meaning two so the "in" contraction cannot be taken; nitro and phenol are functional groups so the "en" in phenol can be contracted.)

    Example 8.2-2: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    e?yl5ediam9etetraacetic acid

    (ethyl-ene-di-amine-tetra-acetic acid)

      ethyl - substituent
      ene - suffix meaning double bond
      di - second position
      amine - substituent
      tetra - fourth position
      acetic acid - substituent
    Example 8.2-3: N-formylmethionine


      N - protein
      formyl - substituent
      methion - substituent
      ine - suffix

8.3 Division of Names of Chemical Compounds. Sites for the division of names of chemical compounds must be carefully chosen. If possible these sites should be between substituents or functional groups, and numbers or letters preceding or within the name must be on the same line as the following substituent. In these examples, a slash represents preferred runover sites.

    Example 8.3-1: 3a,7a,2a-trihydroxycoprostane


    Example 8.3-2: 3,5,3 -triiodothyronine

    3,5,3'-tri / iodo / thyro / nine

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