BRL: Braille through Remote Learning

Specialized Codes Course



Session Topics
  • Arrows
  • Signs of Comparison
  • Shapes

  • Reading Exercise
  • Writing Exercise

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  • Signs of Comparison (Continued)

    Review of Signs of Comparison: A space must be left before and after a sign of comparison. However, no space should be left between a sign of comparison and a sign of grouping, a braille indicator, or a punctuation mark which is related to it.

    The following simple signs of comparison have already been introduced:

    Pointing Left
    Pointing Right
    Contracted Form 1-2-4-6 1-3-5
    Uncontracted Form
    Pointing Left and Right
    Pointing Up
    Pointing Down
    Pointing Up and Down
    Equals = 4-6>
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    Greater Than
    (is greater than)
    With Straight Sides dots 4-6dots 2
    With Curved Sides dots 4-6dots 4-6 dots 2
    Less Than
    (is less than)
    With Straight Sides 5dots 1-3
    With Curved Sides dots 4-6dots 5 dots 4-6
    Proportion (as) :: dots 5-6 dots 2-3
    Ratio (is to) : dots 5 dots 2

    Additional Signs of Comparison:

    1. Arc
      Concave Upward
      Concave Downward

    2. Equivalence (is equivalent to):   dots 4dots 1-2-6 dots 6dots 1-2-6

    3. Identity (is identical to, is congruent to):   dots 4-5-6dots 1-2-3

      This symbol must not be used for is congruent to if another sign is used for this purpose in print.

    4. Inclusion (is contained in, is a subset of):   dots 4-5-6dots 5 dots 1-3

    5. Membership (is an element of, belongs to):   dots 4dots 1-5

      This symbol is generally used for sets and their elements. It must not be mistaken for the Greek uncapitalized epsilon even though it may be referred to as such.

    6. Parallel To (is parallel to): ||  dots 1-2-4-6dots 1-2-3

      1. AB || CD

    7. Perpendicular To (is perpendicular to):   dots 1-2-4-6dots 1-2-3-4

    8. Relation (is related to): R dots 6 dots 1-2-3-5

      When an R or any other letter or sign is used between two expressions to show relation, the letter or other symbol must be treated as a sign of comparison.

      1. a R b

    9. Reverse Inclusion (contains;in logic, implies):   dots 4-5-6dots 4-6 dots 2

    10. Reverse Membership (contains the element):   dots 4dots 2-6

    11. Tilde
      Simple (is related to, is similar to): dots 4 dots 1-5-6
      Extended (is related to): dots 4 dots 6 dots 1-5-6

      The tilde may be used as a sign of operation or as a sign of comparison.

    12. Variation (varies as):   dots 4-5-6dots 1-2-3-4-5-6

    13. Vertical Bar (such that):  |   dots 1-2-5-6

      The vertical bar may be used as a sign of grouping, as a sign of operation or as a sign of comparison. When used as a sign of comparison, it usually occurs in an expression within braces used for set notation. However, it may also appear in other situations.

      1. {x | x has the property T}

      2. {w | w = w + 1}

      3. {m | 3 (m - 6) = -9}

      4. {(x,y) | x + y = 6}

    Signs of Comparison Compounded Vertically: When two or more simple signs of comparison are arranged one under the other, the combination becomes a single comparison sign compounded vertically. The symbol for the uppermost sign must be written first and unspaced from the symbol for the next lower sign.

    1. Arrows: When a right pointing arrow in regular type with a full barb and single shaft of ordinary length is part of a sign of comparison compounded vertically, its contracted form must not be used.

      Pointing-Right Over Pointing-Left
      Pointing-Right Over Pointing-Left
      Pointing-Left Over Pointing-Right
      Long Pointing-Right
      Over Short Pointing-Left
      Short Pointing-Right
      Over Long Pointing-Left
      Pointing-Right With Upper Barb Only
      Over Pointing-Left With Lower Barb Only
      Pointing-Left Over
      Boldface Pointing-Right
      Boldface Pointing-Right
      Over Pointing-Left
      Boldface Pointing-Left
      Over Pointing-Right
      Boldface Pointing-Right
      Over Boldface Pointing-Left
      Boldface Pointing-Left
      Over Boldface Pointing-Right

    2. Equals:
      Horizontal Bar - 1-5-6
      Oblique Bar /or\ 1-5-6
      Equals Sign = 4-61-3

      As shown in c through k below, a single horizonal bar, an oblique bar, or an equals sign may appear as part of a sign of comparison compounded vertically. The horizontal bar or oblique bar is often substituted for the equals sign.

    3. Greater Than:
      Bar Over Greater Than
      (is equal to or greater than)
      Equals Sign Over Greater Than
      (is equal to or greater than)
      Bar Under Greater Than
      (is greater than or equal to)
      Equals Sign Under Greater Than
      (is greater than or equal to)

    Go to Signs of Comparison, Part 2

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