English Braille
American Edition



Definition of Braille

Rules of Braille
  1. Punctuation Signs
  2. Special Composition Signs
  3. Format
  4. Asterisk, Footnotes, References
  5. Accent Sign, Diphthongs, Foreign Languages
  6. Abbreviations
  7. Numbers and Roman Numerals
  8. Coinage, Weights, and Other Special Symbols
  9. Poetry, Scansion, and Stress
  10. General Use of Contractions
  11. One-cell whole-word contractions
  12. One-cell part-word contractions
  13. Lower Signs
  14. Initial-letter contractions
  15. Final-letter contractions
  16. Short-form words

  • Index
    Typical and Problem Words

  • Index
    BRL Courses
  • Intro to Braille
  • Braille Transcribers
  • Specialized Codes


    1. Other Grades of Braille: While English Braille Grades 1 and 2 constitute the offical systems in English-speaking countries, the following systems are also extan, manuals for which may be obtained from the American Printing House for the Blind, P.O. Bx 6085, 1839 Frankfort Avenue, Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085.
      • Grade 3 Braille: This system, and extension of Grade 2, uses additional contractions and short-form words, and outlining (the omission of vowels). Grade 3 contains more than 500 contracted forms and is used mainly by individuals for their personal convenience.
      • Braille Shorthand: This system is designed for use by blind stenographers, and consists of highly contracted forms for writing words, phrases, and letter groups of frequent occurrence in commercial usage.
      • Revised Braille Grade 1.5: This system was much less contracted than English Braille Grade 2, employing only 44 one-cell contractions. Its use was confined mainly to the United States were it was the official code from 1918-1932. Copies of this code are no longer available.
    2. Special Braille Codes: In addition to literary braille, specialized braille codes are employed for the writing of music, mathematics, scientific formulas, compter notation and materials for other specialized fields. Special codebooks covering these notations are available fromt he American Printing House for the Blind, P.O. Box 6085, 1839 Frankfort Avenue, Louisbille, Kentucky 40206-0085.