Definition of Braille
Rules of Braille
- Punctuation Signs
- Special Composition Signs
- Asterisk, Footnotes, References
- Accent Sign, Diphthongs, Foreign Languages
- Numbers and Roman Numerals
- Coinage, Weights, and Other Special Symbols
- Poetry, Scansion, and Stress
- General Use of Contractions
- One-cell whole-word contractions
- One-cell part-word contractions
- Lower Signs
- Initial-letter contractions
- Final-letter contractions
- Short-form words
Typical and Problem Words
Intro to Braille
RULE XIII - LOWER SIGNS
|| be bb
|| con cc
|| exclamation point
||opening and closing parentheses
||? opening double quotation mark; question mark
||closing double quotation mark
- "Be," "Enough," "Were," "His," "In," and "Was:" The lower signs which represent the words "be," "enough," "were," "his," "in," and "was" may be preceded by the capital and/or italic sign, but must not be in contact with any other letter, contraction, word, or punctuation sign. Ex:
It may be. ,x may be4
Was it as you thought it was?
,0 x z y ?"\ x was8
Enough's enough. ,5\<'s 5\<4
The would-be actor. ,! wd-be actor4
So you were. ,s y w]e4
"Was he a good-enough player?"
8,was he a gd-5\<
These were his books. ,^! 7 .8 books4
So you wereæwere you? ,s y w]e--w]e y8
"Were they his?" 8,w]e !y his80
My mother-in-law is my only in-law.
,my "m-in-law is my only
Arriving (in time) I walked in.
,>riv+ 7in "t7 ,i walk$
shut-in %ut-in shut-ins %ut-9s
However, these signs should be used where they are no longer in contact with the hyphen. Ex:
| would- wd-
- Lower Sign Rule: Any number of lower signs should follow one another without a space if one of them is in contact with a sign containing dot 1a or dot 4@. Although the italic sign . contains a dot 4, it is not to be considered an upper sign. Ex:
tirely ruined tirely ru9$
She seems soædisinclined.
,%e seems s--49-
Two or more unspaced lower signs must not follow one another when they are not in contact with an upper sign containing a dot 1 or a dot 4. Ex:
Was that his? ,0 t .his8
| in- in-
b. When two or more lower-sign contractions follow one another without being in contact with an upper sign, the final lower-sign contraction must not be used. Ex:
He is to be a man.
|to con- 6con-
||to disen- 64en-
,he is 6.be a man4
- "To," "Into," and "By:"
Braille the lower signs "to," "into," and "by" unspaced from the word, abbreviation, letter, or number which follows, or the braille equivalent for a print symbol which follows.
"Ea" and the Double-Letter Signs: The lower-sign contractions for "ea" and the double-letter signs "bb," "cc," "dd," "ff," and "gg" must be used only when these letters occur between letters and/or contractions within a word. They must never begin or end a word. Ex:
The lower sign may begin the next braille line where there is not room on the braille line for the lower sign and either at least the first syllable of the following word, or the abbreviation, and/or the braille equivalent for a print symbol and the letter or number joined to it, which follows.
The lower signs "to," "into," and "by" may be preceded and/or followed by braille composition signs.
The lower signs "to," "into," and "by" may not be used and joined to any punctuation sign which follows. Do not use these lower signs as parts of words, in compound words, nor as proper names. When the sign "into" cannot be used, use the "in" contraction.
I was to receive it by 12 noon.
,i 0 6rcv x 0#ab noon4
He came by because he wanted a ride into Toronto.
,he came 02c he want$ a
The new bylaw, passed by 51%, will create a big to-do.
,! new bylaw1 pass$
0#ea@3p1 w cr1te a big
By and large, they voted by a "show of hands".
,0& l>ge1 !y vot$ 0a
8%[ ( h&s04
Colonel By was commemorated by Bytown.
,colonel ,by 0 -memorat$
Give it to 'im. ,give x to 'im4
What she got into, was trouble.
,:at %e got 9to1 0 tr\#4
"To err is human, to ... divine." 8,6.]r is
human1 to ''' div9e40
"TO BE OR NOT TO BE" opens a famous speech.
8,,6,,be ,,or ,,n
,,6,,be0 op5s a fam\s
It was referred to by his sister.
,x 0 ref]r$ 60his si/]4
Do right by him. ..,d "r 0.hm4
$15 added to X came to $45.
4#ae a4$ 6;,x came
They came to (verbal) blows.
,!y came to 7v]bal7
They should not be used when in contact with a hyphen or an apostrophe. Ex:
"Be," "Con," and "Dis:" The lower part-word contractions "be," "con," and "dis" may be used only as syllables at the beginning of a word or at the beginning of a line in a divided word, except that they may be used after a hyphen in a hyphenated compound word. These contractions may be used in names for the first syllable following Mac or Mc when such a syllable is capitalized. As part-word contractions, they must not stand alone as syllables at the beginning of a line in a divided word. They may not be used when in contact with a hyphen in a divided or in a syllabified word. Ex:
These contractions must not be used where the letters are separated by a primary syllable division. (See §34.b.(2).) Ex:
Exception: The signs for "bb," "cc," "dd," "ff," and "gg" may overlap syllable divisions which occur between a prefix and the root of a word, since to use them would not obscure recognition. Ex:
Use any alternative one-cell contraction in preference to "ea" and the double-letter signs except where a contraction ending in "e" would break the "eau" trigraph, as in: tableau, Fontainebleau, Clemenceau, Bertheau, etc. Ex:
However, where the same space is saved, use any lower one-cell contraction in preference to a two-cell contraction.
|"ar" in near ne> ||heart he>t
|"ble" in bubble bub#
|"ch" in saccharine sac*>9e
|"ed" in peddle p$dle ||wedding w$d+
|"of" in office (fice
|"for" in effort ef=t
"dd" in Haddon Hall ,ha4on ,hall
"en" in opponent oppon5t
dis-con-cert (syllabifying) dis-con-c]t
The contractions for "be," "con," and "dis," when used in a complete word, should be used in the abbreviation of the word. They must not be used if they comprise the entire abbreviation, nor may "con" be used as a whole word. Ex:
"Com:" The lower part-word contraction "com" may be used at the beginning of a word or of a line in a divided word, but it need not be a syllable. It must never be used in contact with a hyphen, a dash, or an apostrophe, even when a composition sign intervenes. It may be used after the capital and/or italic sign, unless it immediately follows a hyphen, a dash, or an apostrophe on the same line of writing. When "com" is capitalized, the contraction may be used in a name following Mac or Mc. Ex:
conj. (conjunction) 3j4
con. (concerto) con4
cont. (continued) 3t4
pro and con pro & con
dist. (district) 4t4
The contractions "be," "con," and "dis" must never be used before the apostrophe, but they may follow it. Ex:
I willæcome what may.
,i w--come :at may4
Will 'e 'commodate me?
,W 'e 'commodate me8
The bookæcomparativelyæis not good.
--is n gd4