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Definition of Braille

Rules of Braille
  1. Punctuation Signs
  2. Special Composition Signs
  3. Format
  4. Asterisk, Footnotes, References
  5. Accent Sign, Diphthongs, Foreign Languages
  6. Abbreviations
  7. Numbers and Roman Numerals
  8. Coinage, Weights, and Other Special Symbols
  9. Poetry, Scansion, and Stress
  10. General Use of Contractions
  11. One-cell whole-word contractions
  12. One-cell part-word contractions
  13. Lower Signs
  14. Initial-letter contractions
  15. Final-letter contractions
  16. Short-form words

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    Typical and Problem Words

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  • Specialized Codes


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        31. When in print a number or letter is preceded or followed by a symbol or abbreviation for coinage, weight, measure, or other special sign, in braille follow the print order, spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and spacing for the abbreviation or the corresponding braille symbol.

        a. Print Abbreviations: Follow the print capitalization, spelling, punctuation, order and spacing. When the abbreviation is unspaced from the preceding number or letter, insert a letter sign before the abbreviation. The one-cell part-word sign "in" should not be used in the abbreviation for "inch(es)." In abbreviations that contain both upper and lower case letters, such as MHz (megahertz), capitalize each upper case letter individually. Ex:

    2ft, 4in #b;ft1 #d;in
    15 km/l #ae km/l
    5-10 mins #e-aj m9s
    27 sq. ft. #bg sq4 ft4
    5mL #e;m,l
    6-in.-dia. #f-;in4-dia4
    5 KW #e ,,kw
    60 MHz #fj ,m,hz,
    8 ins #h ins

    Print Braille Meaning
    Symbol Equivalent
    ¢ @c cent(s)
    ° dg degree(s)
    $ 4 dollar(s)
    ' ft single prime meaning foot or feet
    " @9 double prime meaning inch(es)
    ´ m9 single prime meaning minute(s) of arc
    p> paragraph
    % @3p percent
    " sec double prime meaning second(s) of arc
    § s' section
    ¥ @y yen
         (1) Use the list of braille equivalents as shown in §31.b. above. When the braille equivalent is composed of letter(s) and immediately follows the number or letter (that is, without a space), insert a letter sign. Also, insert a letter sign before any letter which immediately follows the braille equivalent. Ex:

    $36 4#cf 25 7d l#be #g;d
    16 #af@c 21¥ #ba@y
    18° #ah;dg 98°F #ih;dg;,f
    5' #e;ft or #e;m9
    10" #aj@9 or #aj;sec
    It's 5%. ,x's #e@3p4 #7 ,no4#g
    Apt. #A ,apt4 ,no4;,a
    Ed carried the 100# bag.
    ,$ c>ri$ ! #ajj;lb bag4
    §3 s'#c §d s';d
    ¶B p>;,b
          (2) Insert dot 4, @ the print symbol indicator, before the $ and symbol in braille when the symbol stands alone or is in conjunction with a word or abbreviation. List this symbol on the special symbols page. (See App. A. 9.) Ex:

    10 $US #aj @4,,us
    The and the US$ were unchanged.
    ,! @l &! ,,us@4 7 un-

         c. 1 List this symbol on the special symbols page. (See App. A. 9.) When Latin letters of such abbreviations immediately follow the non-Latin letter(s), insert a letter sign before the first Latin letter of such abbreviations. Do not use contractions in such abbreviations. Ex:

    3 msec (microseconds) #c 1m;sec

    In texts where it is required to show that a special symbol is used, such as & (ampersand) or @ (at), dot 4 @ should precede the braille symbol or letter combination. Such usage should be employed only when it is necessary to show the exact symbol, such as in typewriting instruction manuals or other technical works. List this symbol on the special symbols page. (See App. A. 9.) Ex:
    #c@dg & @&
    @ @at # @#
          e. Ditto sign: "1 The ditto sign should always be preceded and followed by a space. List this sign on the special symbols page. The print ditto signs should be represented by a single ditto sign in braille. (See App. A. 9.) Ex:

    Joe: A college student.
    Patsy: " " "
    ,joe3 ,a college /ud5t4
    ,patsy3 "1

         f. The appropriate word should be substituted for any special symbol for which no provision has been made in this code such as "Copyright" for "."

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