English Braille
American Edition
1994


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Definition of Braille

Rules of Braille
  1. Punctuation Signs
  2. Special Composition Signs
  3. Format
  4. Asterisk, Footnotes, References
  5. Accent Sign, Diphthongs, Foreign Languages
  6. Abbreviations
  7. Numbers and Roman Numerals
  8. Coinage, Weights, and Other Special Symbols
  9. Poetry, Scansion, and Stress
  10. General Use of Contractions
  11. One-cell whole-word contractions
  12. One-cell part-word contractions
  13. Lower Signs
  14. Initial-letter contractions
  15. Final-letter contractions
  16. Short-form words

Appendices
  • Index
    Typical and Problem Words

    Indices
  • Index
    BRL Courses
  • Intro to Braille
  • Braille Transcribers
  • Specialized Codes


    BRL REFERENCE DESK

    BANA Resources Tools and resources Organizations

    Other links
  • RULE XIV - INITIAL-LETTER CONTRACTIONS


    Dot 5 Contractions



    Sign Letters

    Sign Letters

    Sign Letters

    "d day "n name "w work
    "e ever "o one "y young
    "f father "p part "! there
    "h here "q question "* character
    "k know "r right "? through
    "l lord "s some ": where
    "m mother "t time "\ ought
    "u under
    Dots 4-5 Contractions

    Sign Letters

    Sign Letters

    Sign Letters

    ^u upon ^! these ^: whose
    ^w word ^? those
    Dots 4-5-6 Contractions

    Sign Letters

    Sign Letters

    Sign Letters

    _c cannot _m many _w world
    _h had _s spirit _! their
    1.   Initial-letter contractions may be used either as words or parts of words when they retain their original sound.

      Examples











       

      Used

      Not Used

      day
      "d
      daytime
      "d"t
      whaddaya (dialect)
      :a4aya
        Dayton
      ,"dton
       
        dogdays
      dog"ds
       
        yesterday
      ye/]"d
       
      ever
      "e
      everywhere
      "ey":
      evert
      ev]t
        Beverly
      ,b"ely
      severity
      sev];y
        several
      s"eal
      fever
      fev]
        lever
      l"e
       
      father
      "f
      fatherly
      "fly
      æ
        grandfather
      gr&"f
       
        stepfather
      /ep"f
       
      here
      "h
      herewith
      "h)
      heresy
      h]esy
        adheres
      ad"hs
      sphere
      sph]e
        cohere
      co"h
      (See¤b. below.)
      know
      "k
      knows
      "ks
      æ
        unknown
      un"kn
       
        acknowledge
      ac"kl$ge
       
      lord
      "l
      lordly
      "lly
      lordosis
      lordosis
        overlord
      ov]"l
       
      mother
      "m
      motherly
      "mly
      chemotherapy

      *emo!rapy
        smothered
      s"m$
       
        grandmother
      gr&"m
       
      name
      "n
      namely
      "nly
      enamel
      5amel
        renamed
      re"nd
      Vietnamese
      ,vietnamese
        surname
      sur"n
       
      one
      "o
      (See §a. and §b. below.) æ
      part
      "p
      partial
      "pial
      Parthenon
      ,p>!non
        particular
      "picul>
      (See §c. below.)
        repartee
      re"pee
       
      question
      "q
      questionnaire
      "qnaire
      æ
        unquestionable
      un"qa#
       
      right
      "r
      rightly
      "rly
      æ
        sprightly
      sp"rly
       
        bright
      b"r
       
      some
      "s
      (See §d. below.) (See §d. below.)
      time
      "t
      times
      "ts
      centime
      c5time
        timer
      "tr
      centimeter
      c5timet]
        maritime
      m>i"t
      Mortimer
      ,mortim]
      under
      "u
      undertake
      "utake
      bounder
      b.d]
        blunder
      bl"u
      launder
      laund]
        thunder
      ?"u
      underived
      underiv$
      work
      "w
      working
      "w+
      æ
        unworkable
      un"wa#
       
        handiwork
      h&i"w
       
      young
      "y
      youngster
      "y/]
      --
        youngest
      "ye/
       
      there
      "!
      therein
      "!9
      ethereal
      e!r1l
        thereby
      "!by
      gathered
      ga!r$
      character"*
      characteristic
      "*i/ic
      æ
        characterize
      "*ize
       
      through"?
      throughout"?\t
      æ
      where
      ":
      wherein
      ":9
      (See §f. below.)
        whereupon
      ":^u
       
        nowhere
      no":
       
      ought
      "\
      oughtn't
      "\n't
      Houghton
      ,h\<ton
        bought
      b"\
       
        thoughtless
      ?"\.s
       
        doughty
      d"\y
       
        drought
      dr"\
       
      upon
      ^u
      thereupon
      "!^u
      coupon
      c\pon
      word
      ^w
      wording
      ^w+
      sword
      sword
      these
      ^!
      these
      ^!
      theses
      !ses
      had
      _h
      hadn't
      _hn't
      hades
      hades
        Hadley
      ,_hley
      hadji
      hadji
          shade
      %ade
          (See §e. below.)
      many
      _m
      manysided æ
      _msid$
      --
        Germany
      ,g]_m
       
      spirit
      _s
      spiritual
      _sual
      (See §f. below.)
        unspirited
      un_s$
       
      world
      _w
      worldly
      _wly
      æ
        underworld
      "u_w
       
      their
      _!
      theirs
      _!s
      æ


      Exceptions

      1.   The contraction for "one" may be used whenever "o" and "n" are both in the same syllable, but it should not be used when the "n" begins a new syllable. Ex:

        oneness "o;s money m"oy

        phone ph"o monetary m"ot>y

        honest h"o/ phonetic phonetic

        pioneer pione] colonel colonel

        coronet coronet anemone anemone


      2.   Whenever "d," "r," or "n" follows "one" or "here," the contractions for "ed," "er," and "en" should be used in preference to the contractions for "one" and "here." Ex:

        poisoned poison$ prisoner prison]

        sooner soon] onerous on]\s

        component -pon5t phoned phon$

        adherer adh]] adhered adh]$

        coherent coh]5t



      3.   The contraction for "part" must always be used unless the prefix "par" is followed by any variation of the word "take." Ex:

        party "py partial "pial

        impartial im"pial partake p>take

        partaken p>tak5 partaker p>tak]

        partakes p>takes partaking p>tak+

        partook p>took


      4.   The contraction for "some" should be used only where the letters it represents retain their original sound, and where they form a complete syllable in the base word. Ex:

        sometimes "s"ts handsomer h&"sr

        handsomest h&"s/ blossomed blossom$

        gasometer gasomet]

        somersault som]sault

        chromosome *romosome


      5.   Any alternative one-cell contraction should be used in preference to the contraction for "had." Ex:

        haddock ha4ock

        Haddon Hall ,ha4on ,hall

        shadow %ad[


      6.   Where a choice must be made between two consecutive contractions to avoid misspelling, preference should be given to the contraction which more nearly indicates correct pronunciation. Ex:

        wherever :]"e where'er :]e']

        dispirited di_s$



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