English Braille
American Edition
1994


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  10. General Use of Contractions
  11. One-cell whole-word contractions
  12. One-cell part-word contractions
  13. Lower Signs
  14. Initial-letter contractions
  15. Final-letter contractions
  16. Short-form words

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  • RULE XV — FINAL-LETTER CONTRACTIONS





    Dots 4-6 Contractions

    SignLetters
    SignLetters
    SignLetters
    .dound .nsion .tount
    .eance .sless

    Dots 5-6 Contractions

    SignLetters
    SignLetters
    SignLetters
    ;eence ;lful ;tment
    ;gong ;ntion ;yity
    ;sness

    Dots 6 Contractions

    SignLetters
    SignLetters
    ,nation ,yally

    46. Final-letter contractions should be used in the middle or at the end of a word, or at the beginning of a line in a divided word. They may never begin a word nor be used alone as a whole word, nor should they be used when preceded by the hyphen or the apostrophe. Ex:

    grey'ound grey'\nd 'Tion! ',tion6

    con-sti-tu-tion con-/i-tu-tion

    useless- use.s-
    ness ;s


    Examples


    Used
    Not Used
    oundfound'ounds
    .df.d '\nds

    foundry



    f.dry


    ancechancellorancestor
    .e *.ellorance/or

    Frances

    ,fr.es
    sionconfusionSion
    .n 3fu.n ,sion

    expressionless

    expres.n.s


    lessblessingless
    .s b.s+ less

    carelesslessee

    c>e.s lessee

    unlesslesson

    un.s lesson


    unlessoned


    unlesson$

    ountcountryRountree
    .t c.try ,r\ntree

    county

    c.ty


    amount

    am.t


    encefencesencephalitis
    ;e f;es 5cephalitis

    commencement

    -m;e;t


    thence

    ?;e


    (See §a. below.)


    ong mongrel congruous
    ;g m;grel 3gru\s

    pongeeincongruous

    p;gee 9congru\s

    tongue

    t;gue


    fulcarefullyfully
    ;l c>e;lly fully

    cheerfulfulfill

    *e];l fulfill


    unfulfilled


    unfulfill$

    tiondiction
    ;n dic;n

    fractional

    frac;nal


    nessfinesseNesselrode
    ;s fi;se ,nesselrode

    business (See §b. below.)

    busi;s


    Tennessee

    ,t5;see

    (See §b. below.)


    mentmementoment
    ;t me;tom5tal

    comment

    -;t


    itypityhoity-toity
    ;yp;yhoity-toity

    deity (See §c. below.)

    de;y

    ation (See §d. below.) (See §d. below.)
    ,n



    ally rallyingally
    ,y r,y+ ally

    usuallyre-ally

    usu,y re-ally

    really (See §c. below.)

    re,y



    Exceptions

    a. The contraction "ence" should be used when followed by "d" or "r." Ex:

    commenced -m;ed

    silencer sil;er

    Spencer ,sp;er

    b. The contraction "ness" should be used in such easily read words as:

    baroness b>o;s

    governess gov];s

    lioness lio;s

    but not where the root word ends in "en" or "in." Ex:

    chieftainess *iefta9ess

    citizeness citiz5ess

    XV-6 RULE XV. 46.c.

    c.  The contractions "ity" and "ally" should not be used where "y" has been added to a base word. Ex:

    fruity fruity squally squally

    d. The contraction "ation" should be used in preference to the letter "a" and the contraction "tion." Ex:

    education $uc,n stationary /,n>y

    ration r,n


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