English Braille
American Edition
1994


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Definition of Braille

Rules of Braille
  1. Punctuation Signs
  2. Special Composition Signs
  3. Format
  4. Asterisk, Footnotes, References
  5. Accent Sign, Diphthongs, Foreign Languages
  6. Abbreviations
  7. Numbers and Roman Numerals
  8. Coinage, Weights, and Other Special Symbols
  9. Poetry, Scansion, and Stress
  10. General Use of Contractions
  11. One-cell whole-word contractions
  12. One-cell part-word contractions
  13. Lower Signs
  14. Initial-letter contractions
  15. Final-letter contractions
  16. Short-form words

Appendices
  • Index
    Typical and Problem Words

    Indices
  • Index
    BRL Courses
  • Intro to Braille
  • Braille Transcribers
  • Specialized Codes


    BRL REFERENCE DESK

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  • RULE XII - ONE-CELL PART-WORD SIGNS


    Sign Contraction Sign Contraction Sign Contraction
    & and % sh / st
    = for ? th > ar
    ( of : wh # ble
    ! the $ ed + ing
    ) with ] er 5 en
    * ch \ ou 9 in
    < gh [ ow    

    1.   The one-cell signs above must be used as parts of words wherever the letters they represent occur, except when specific rules limit their use. (See Rule X.) Ex:

      stand /& forth =? often (t5
      theater !at] without )\t
      cherish *]i% wharf :>f
      showering %[]+ allowable all[a#
      sighed si<$ invent 9v5t
      1.   The contractions for "ble" and "ing" must never begin a word. However, they may be used in the middle or at the end of a word, and at the beginning of a line in a divided word. Ex:

        ingrown 9gr[n Inge ,9ge
        astringent a/r+5t linger l+]
        bringing br++ blemish blemi%
        problem pro#m double d\#
        trou-tr\- "Sing- 8,s+-
        bles #s ing," +10
      2.  The part-word contractions "and," "for," "of," "the," and "with" should be used in preference to other contractions, provided their use does not waste space. Ex:

        office (not "ff") (fice

        bathed (not "th" "ed") ba!d

        other (not "th" "er") o!r

        then (not "th" "en") !n

        calisthenics (not "th" "en") calis!nics

        Leander (not "ea") ,le&]

        wither (not "the") )]

        thence (not "the") ?;e

        afford (not "ff") af=d


      3.   The contraction for "st" may be used for the abbreviations St. (Saint) or St. (Street); however, the contraction may not be used if print omits the period. Ex:

        St. ,/4 St ,st


      4.   Part-word signs which have no whole-word meanings may be contracted when they stand alone, e.g., "Ed" (name), "er" (vocal sound), "Ow!" (exclamation). However, the contractions for "en" and "sh" must not be used alone, since these contractions represent the whole-words for "enough" and "shall."

      5.   In proper names, when the letters "gh," "sh," and "th" are pronounced as one sound, these contractions should be used. However, where a syllable division occurs between these letters, the contractions should not be used. Ex:

        Townshend ("sh" pronounced in second syllable) ,t[n%5d

        Brigham ,brigham

        Chatham ,*atham

        Chisholm ,*isholm




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