Braille Formats
Principles of Print to Braille Transcription
1997


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  • Rule 2

    Preliminary Page Formats

    1. General Provisions. For the purpose of this Code, preliminary pages consist of those materials listed in Section 1b below.

      1. Numbering of preliminary pages. All preliminary pages must be numbered in accordance with Rule 1, Section 14a .

      2. Order of preliminary pages. A title page is required in each volume of the braille edition of a textbook. When other items in the list below are required, each must begin on a new page placed at the front of a braille volume in the order shown.

        Title page
        Supplemental title page(s) for the complete author/editor, series and copyright information (Volume 1 only), see Section 3 below
        Dedication (Volume 1 only), see Section 4 below
        List of special braille symbols, see Section 5 below
        Transcriber's Notes page(s), see Section 6 below
        Table of contents (if shown in print text), see Section 7 below
        Certain material printed on or inside book cover, see Section 8 below
        Repeated cast of characters, see Rule 9, Section 1a(4)
        Repeated table of pronunciation, see Rule 18, Section 1c(4)(b)

      3. Preliminary volume. When 85 or more one-side braille pages are required for the preliminary pages in order to include all of the information given about authors, editors, consultants, reviewers, lists of special symbols, and the entire print table of contents, identify this volume as a Preliminary Volume on the title page as provided in Section 2b and 2c(7)(c) below.
        In this case the next volume, i.e., Volume 1, must include only the portion of print contents that is contained therein. Explain this usage on the Transcriber's Notes page(s) in each volume of the braille edition.

    2. Title pages For kindergarten and first grade texts, see Rule 1, Section 2b(c).

      1. Items to be omitted. Names and information about the print illustrators and all references to grades of braille or special braille codes used in a transcription must be omitted from the title page.

      2. Items to be included. Each braille volume must contain a title page that includes the following information placed in the order shown below. Book title with edition name or number and graded level, if given
        Subtitle and/or series name, if given
        Author (or editor) with degrees and affiliations, if given
        Publisher with first or principal address, city and state only, if given
        Copyright and reproduction notices, ISBN, see Sections 2c(5)(b) and 2c(5)(c) below
        Year of braille transcription
        Name of transcriber with affiliation and/or address, city and state only
        Total number of volumes only if required by the sponsoring agency, see Section 2c(7)(b) below
        Individual volume number in arabic numerals or volume identification, see Section 2c(7)(c) below
        Inclusive braille page numbers (preliminary and text), see Rule 1, Section 14
        Inclusive braille page numbers (roman and arabic) of text and any transposed material, see Rule 1, Section 11

      3. Format for title pages. Use the same format for all title pages throughout the braille edition. An agency may require the use of a specific title page format, e.g., centering or left alignment of items, notice of sponsorship, etc. Following are general directives regarding title page format.

          (1) Spacing and capitalization

            (a) Items must begin on the first line and end on the last line of the page. The number of blank lines on a title page may vary according to the number and length of items included.

            (b) Book titles and names of authors (or editors) must be fully capitalized. All other items, such as a graded level, subtitle, edition and series title, names of publishers, copyright owners, and other proper names, must be brailled using only initial capitals.

          (2) Book titles. The complete book title including a graded level (only if indicated in print), subtitle, series name, and the edition name or number, must be placed on the first line or lines of the title page.

          (3) Graded level. Designation of a graded level for reading, course of study, etc., may appear on the print title page, the cover, or the spine of a book.

            (a) A graded level shown in words or numerals must be brailled as printed and placed following the book title. If space permits place it on the same line as the title, preceded by a colon unless print shows other punctuation.

            (b) When shown as a graphic design consisting of a specific number of lines, dots, etc., the designated level must be brailled in arabic numerals and placed as directed above.

          (4) Information about authors, editors, consultants, and reviewers. Do not insert the word By preceding the names of authors or editors unless it is shown in print.

            (a) If the text shows a list of names of authors (or editors, when authors are not given) that is too lengthy to be contained on the title page, only the name of the principal author or editor must be placed on the title page of each braille volume.

            (b) When the text shows information about authors or editors that is too lengthy to be contained on the title page, only the names of the authors or editors must be placed on the title page of each braille volume.

            (c) In the first volume only, a complete list of authors or editors and all the information about them that is shown in the text, e.g., degrees, titles, and affiliations, must be given on a supplemental title page as directed in Section 3 below.

            (d) Consultants and reviewers. Listings of consultants and reviewers involved in the production of a print text should ordinarily be omitted in the braille edition. However, if an agency requires it, this information must be transcribed using the format provided for acknowlegments in Rule 1, Section 18a(2) .

          (5) Publisher information, copyright, and reproduction notices, ISBN. Under amended provisions of the U.S. copyright law, the permission of publishers or copyright owners is not required by an authorized entity for transcription or distribution of previously published nondramatic literary works in a specialized format. An "authorized entity" is defined as being a nonprofit organization or governmental agency having a primary mission to provide specialized services related to training, education, or adaptive reading or information access needs of blind or other persons with disabilities. EXCEPTION: An authorized organization or agency must obtain the publisher's permission for transcription of the following:

          Computer programs except for those protions that are displayed to users in conventional human language
          Dramatic works, whether prose or poetry, that are not in the public domain
          Music and any accompanying lyrics
          Standardized, secure, or norm-referenced tests and related testing materials
          Texts produced by foreign publishers and without U.S. copyrights that are to be distributed in foreign countries

          NOTE: In the U.S. any unauthorized organization, governmental agency, or unaffiliated transcriber to obtain permission of the publisher or copyright owner before beginning the transcription of any text. Sponsoring organizations, agencies, and transcribers in other countries are similarly responsible for determining and observing all applicable copyright laws.

            (a) Publisher information. Depending upon whether or not copyright clearance has been obtained, each title page must include either the words With the permission of the publisher or Published by preceding the name of the publisher, followed by the first or principal address, city and state only, if given.

            (b) Copyright and reproduction notices. Follow Sections [1]-[3] below for brailling the copyright notice including date(s) and copyright owner(s). Omit any statement about reservation of rights and substitute the word Copyright when only the print sign © is shown. Immediately after the copyright notice insert the following reproduction notice, omitting any limitations on reproduction that may appear in print.

            Further reproduction or distribution in other than a specialized format is prohibited.

            This notice must also appear in print in each braille volume, preferably inside the front cover or on the title page; however, an agency may specify its placement in the braille edition.

              [1] When the list of copyright owners and dates shown on the print title page or elsewhere in the book is too lengthy to be contained on the title page, only the latest copyright date and owner must be placed on the title page of each volume. In Volume 1, names of all copyright owners and dates that are shown in the text must be placed on a preliminary page as directed in Section 3 below.

              [2] If a text is copyrighted but no date is shown, only the word Copyright must be placed on the title page.

              [3] When a text is not copyrighted, place the word Printed on the title page followed by the latest printing date that is given in the text.

            (c) ISBN. Formerly the Standard Book Number (SBN) and now the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is assigned to specifically identify a particular book. The International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) similarly identifies a magazine, journal or other periodical publication. One of these numbers usually appears on the copyright page or on the book cover. When shown in print, the number must be placed on the title page of each braille volume immediately after the copyright and reproduction notices. Follow print for capitalization, punctuation, and spacing of the abbreviation and following numbers.

          (6) Transcription information. An agency may specify format to govern placement of the transcriber's name and the notice of sponsorship. When an agency format is not provided, the title page should carry the following information.

          Year of braille transcription
          Name of transcriber
          Affiliation or sponsoring agency, with city and state

          (7) Braille volume information

            (a) Individual volumes in the braille edition must be given consecutive arabic numbers that are placed on the title page in the order shown in Section 2b above. See Rule 19, Section 11 for the additional volume identifications required in dictionaries.

            (b) An agency may require that the total number of volumes be given preceding the individual volume number on each title page in the braille edition.

            (c) When the braille edition contains a preliminary volume (see Section 1c above) or supplementary volumes (see Rule 1, Section 10 ), they must be included with the total number of volumes as follows: Preliminary and 9 Volumes or In 12 Volumes and 2 Appendixes (or 2 Supplements).

          (8) Braille page information. Inclusive preliminary and text braille page numbers must be given on the title page of each volume in the order shown in Section 2b above. These pages must be indicated as shown below.

          Braille pages p1-p6 and 1-81

          (9) Print page information. Inclusive print page numbers, both roman and arabic, must be given on each title page of each volume in the order shown in Section 2b above.

            (a) In Volume 1, whether or not the initial numerals actually appear on pages in the text, the print page numbers must be indicated as beginning with i, I, or 1, as shown below.

            Print pages i-x and 1-53

            (b) When a braille volume either begins and/or ends with a lettered continuation page, the lettered page number(s) must be indicated on the title page, as shown below.

            Print pages a69-125 or Print pages 125-b182

            (c) The letter indicator is not required before a lettered continuation page number even when that number is preceded by a hyphen. However, the number indicator must be repeated before the second number when it is preceded by a letter.

            (d) The print page numbers of material that is transposed from its original position in the print text must be indicated on the title page of the braille volume in which the transposed material actually appears, as shown below.

            Print pages 115-155 and 397-399

    3. Supplemental title pages . When there is insufficient space on the title page, the page(s) immediately following the title page in Volume 1 only must include in this order: a complete list of the authors or editors, all information about the degrees, titles, and affiliations of authors or editors, and complete information given about copyright owners and copyright dates.

      1. Follow the print copy for linear or list format. Identifying braille headings may be assigned where needed for clarity.

      2. If a list of the author's other works or a listing of other titles in a series of textbooks is given in the text, place this information on a supplemental title page.

    4. Dedications

      1. If the print text includes a dedication, place in on a new preliminary braille page, in the order shown in Section 1b above, in Volume 1 only.

      2. This material must be centered on the page vertically. Follow the print copy for the appropriate format and for capitalization and punctuation.

    5. List of special braille symbols

      1. The following must not be included in a special symbols list.

          (1) Symbols used infrequently in the braille edition that are explained in transcriber's notes as provided in Rule 1, Section 7a(2) and (3)

          (2) Symbols for signs in print tables of pronunciationn that are placed in the braille edition as provided in Rule 18, Section 1c(4)

      2. A special symbols list must include those symbols that are not covered by (1) and (2) above and that are used throughout a braille volume, such as the following.

        Accent symbol
        Lists of pronunciation symbols according to Rule 18, Section 1c(5)
        Reference indicators
        Special typeface indicators other than the italic indicators
        Symbols indicating omission or repetition of braille page numbers
        Termination symbol
        Transcriber's note symbol (only when the termination symbol is used in the same volume)

      3. Placement of special symbols list

          (1) A list of the special braille symbols that are used in a volume must be placed in the preliminary pages of that volume in the order shown in Section 1b above.

          (2) When the list of special braille symbols that are used throughout the braille edition consists of twelve or more braille pages, it may be treated as a supplementary volume according to Rule 1, Section 10 . This usage must be explained on a Transcriber's Notes pages in each volume of the braille edition.

      4. Format for special symbols list

          (1) The list must be placed on a new braille page with the centered heading SPECIAL SYMBOLS USED IN THIS VOLUME starting on the first line (third line, if a running head is used). This heading must be followed by a blank line. When a list must be continued on one or more pages, these pages must carry the centered heading SPECIAL SYMBOLS (cont.) starting on the first line (second line, if a running head is used). No blank line must be left after this repeated heading unless a category heading immediately follows.

          (2) When symbols fall into identifiable categories, e.g., reference indicator, typeface indicators, diacritics, etc., these should be presented first and followed by the other symbols. The heading for each category must be brailled with initial capitals and placed as a cell-5 heading above the symbols it identifies. When a category list must be continued on one or more pages, repeat the cell-5 heading followed by (cont.) starting on the first line, (second line, if a running head is used).

          (3) Each listed symbol must begin in cell 1 and be followed, after one blank cell, by its identification as directed below.

            (a) When a listed symbol consists of only right-hand dots or only lower-cell dots, after one blank cell it must be followed by its identifying dot numbers that are enclosed in parentheses and brailled as provided in Rule 1, Section 15b(1) .

            (b) The meaning or function of a symbol's print equivalent must be given as it is explained in the print text. When the text does not explain a symbol's print equivalent, give the name, function, or a brief description of the print sign.

            (c) Braille symbols with no print equivalents, such as the termination symbol, must be identified by name.

          (4) Use of letter indicator in special symbols list

            (a) In the margin listing, the letter indicator must not precede any single letter, modified letter, or combination of letters.

            (b) In the identification of a symbol, the letter indicator must precede any single letter, any modified letter, or any combination of letters that corresponds to a short-form word.

          (5) All runovers of items in the special symbols list must start in cell 3.

    6. Transcriber's Notes pages. When a special braille format or usage that requires explanation appears throughout a volume or throughout an entire transcription, it must be explained on a preliminary page or pages placed in the volume(s) in the order shown in Section 1b above.

      1. The first page must carry the centered heading TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES placed on the first line (third line, if a running head is used). This heading must be followed by a blank line. When more than one page is required, these pages must carry the centered heading TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES (cont.) placed on the first line (second line, if a running head is used). No blank line is required after this repeated heading.

      2. Notes must be brailled in indented paragraph form, and the transcriber's note symbol must not be used.

      3. As an aid to the teacher who may not read braille, a typed copy of the Transcriber's Notes page(s) may be prepared to accompany each volume in the braille edition.

    7. Tables of contents

      1. General provisions

          (1) If a table of contents is shown in the print text, a table of contents must be placed at the front of each volume of the braille edition in the order shown in Section 1b above.

            (a) When a preliminary volume is required, see Section 1c above. The entire table of contents of the print text must be included in Volume 1 of the braille edition.

            (b) Each subsequent volume must contain only that portion of the print contents that is included in the particular volume.

            (c) If parts of a table of contents are repeated before text section this duplication must be ignored, and notice of the omission must be given on the Transcriber's Notes page in Volume 1.

          (2) Capitalization and special typefaces. Follow print copy for capitalization of the contents heading, unit and part headings, and listed contents items. Special typefaces must be ignored except where italics are required for emphasis or distinction.

          (3) Unit and part headings. Regardless of the placement shown in print, unit and part headings must be centered on the braille line and placed above the chapter headings or other subdivisions to which they apply.

            (a) Unit and part headings must be preceded but not followed by a blank line except in the following cases.

              [1] When there are two or more consecutive unit or part headings, a blank line must precede only the first heading.

              [2] In Volume 1, no blank line must precede a unit or part heading when it immediately follows a volume number.

              [3] In Volume 1, no blank line must precede a unit or part heading that immediately follows the heading Following Volumes placed as provided in Section 7b(2)(b) below.

            (b) If a unit or part heading is shown with a page number, that page number must be placed to end at the right margin on the last line of the heading, and guide dots should be inserted according to Section 7c(4) below.

          (4) Topic headings. Items in a print table of contents (with or without page numbers) may be shown grouped under topic headings in various ways and for different purposes, including the following.

          To group a number of related items
          To identify specific listed items
          To refer to visual scanning devices, e.g., page tabs

          Treat such topic headings as cell-5 braille headings according to Rule 4, Section 3 .

          (5) Volume numbers and divisions

            (a) Volume numbers. In accordance with Section 7b(2) below, place individual braille volume numbers in the table of contents of Volume 1 only. No volume number should be inserted when the braille edition consists of a single volume.

            (b) Volume divisions When it is necessary to end a braille volume within a chapter or other section of the text, this must be indicated in the table of contents, as follows.

              [1] In the complete table of contents in Volume 1 do not repeat any headings that are centered on the contents page, i.e., unit or part headings. Repeat only the heading of the last listed item followed by the word (cont.) and the appropriate page number.

              [2] In tables of contents in Volume 2 and following volumes, repeat the centered unit or part heading and the listed item in which the volume division occurs. Insert the word (cont.) after only the last listed item, followed by the appropriate page number.

          (6) The last line of each contents page must carry only the running preliminary braille page number.

          (7) Runovers of contents items may begin a new braille page. When the table of contents in a volume must be continued on one or more braille pages, do not repeat any of the first page headings provided in Section 7b below. On succeeding contents pages, the contents items and/or their runovers must be started on the first line (second line, if a running head is used).

      2. Headings on the first page of a table of contents

          (1) On the first line (third line, if a running head is used), center the heading shown in print e.g., What You Will Study. If there is no print heading, center the word CONTENTS.

          (2) Volume numbers in first volume only

            (a) On the third line (fifth line, if a running head is used) center the heading Volume 1.

            (b) Unknown volume divisions. After completion of the contents of the first volume, if exact volume divisions are not known, leave a blank line preceding the centered heading Following Volumes.

            (c) Known volume divisions. After completion of the contents of the first volume, when exact volume divisions are known, leave a blank line preceding the centered heading Volume 2. The remaining volume numbers must be inserted in the same manner.

          (3) Chapter and page headings

            (a) The word Page must be placed to end at the right margin on the braille line above the page numbers of listed contents items.

            (b) When the print text shows a heading such as Chapters, Stories, Essays, etc., above the listed contents, place the appropriate heading starting in cell 1 on the same braille line with Page.

            (c) If Chapter, Story, Essay, etc., is shown preceding each listed contents item, place the appropriate word as directed in (b) above and omit it before the individual contents items.

            (d) The headings Chapter (or other headings) and Page must be placed:

              [1] In volume 1, on the fourth line (sixth line, when a running head is used).

              [2] In volume 2 and other volumes, on the second line (fourth line, if a running head is used).

      3. Listed contents items. Regardless of the manner in which contents items are printed, i.e., in linear or list format, in the braille edition contents items must be transcribed as provided below.

          (1) Items with page numbers

            (a) Start each main item (preceded by its identifying number or letter, if any) in cell 1. When there are only main items in the entire table of contents, all runovers of listed items must begin in cell 3.

            (b) If there are main items and subdivisions in the table of contents, start main items in cell 1 with runovers in cell 5, start subdivisions in cell 3 with runovers in cell 7, sub-subdivisions must start in cell 5 with runovers in cell 9, and so on.

            (c) At least one blank cell must be left between the end of a listed item and its page number. When a listed item requires more than one braille line, at least six blank cells must be left after any braille line that is not followed by a page number.

          (2) Items without page numbers. If a series of contents items printed in either linear or list format is shown without page numbers, braille the entire series in linear form. Placement of the first item and the indention of runovers of the series must be according to (1) above. Insert semicolons to separate individual items within such a series.

          (3) Major divisions of the contents. When a table of contents contains major divisions, such a preface, introduction, index or appendix, a blank line should separate these divisions from the other contents items but not from each other.

          (4) Guide dots. A series of unspaced guide dots (5), preceded and followed by a blank cell, should be inserted between the last word of a contents item and its page number. However, unless there is space for two or more guide dots the page number must follow the item with no guide dots inserted.

          (5) Transposed material. When material that is listed in the print table of contents is transposed from its original position to a different position in the braille edition, it must be listed (with its print page number, if shown) in the contents of the braille volume in which it appears.

            (a) Unless exact volume divisions and volume contents are known in advance, any material that is to be transposed must be listed in the contents of Volume 1 just as it appears in the print table of contents.

            (b) In the contents of subsequent volumes, transposed material must be listed (with its print page number, if shown) in the order in which it appears in the particular volume.

          (6) Omission of listed maps, illustrations, etc. When such items, as a whole or in part, are not included in the braille edition, do not list the omitted items in the table of contents. Notice of such omission must be given in a transcriber's note inserted after completion of the entire table of contents in Volume 1. Leave a blank line before inserting a transcriber's note such as the following.

          Listing of ______omitted.

          (7) Contents in index format. When a table of contents is printed in the form of an index, i.e., with contents items listed in alphabetical order rather than in the sequential order in which they appear in the body of the text, these contents must be brailled as an index according to Rule 7, Section 4 .

            (a) Because the contents items are not shown in normal sequential order in this format, the entire print table of contents must be included in each volume of the braille edition.

            (b) The following transcriber's note must be inserted immediately following the contents heading on the first page of the table of contents in each volume.

            The contents are brailled as printed--in index format.

      4. Page numbers in tables of contents

          (1) Only print page numbers that are listed in the print table of contents must be given in the braille table of contents.

            (a) When a listed item starts on a lettered continuation page in the braille edition, the appropriate letter must precede the print page number.

            (b) In the complete table of contents in the first volume, exact lettered page numbers must be indicated for the contents items in Volume 1. When it is possible to do so, lettered page numbers should also be given for the contents of all other volumes.

          (2) The page number must be placed to end at the right margin of the braille line on which a listed item ends.

          (3) Inclusive or consecutive page numbers. When inclusive page numbers or several consecutive page numbers are shown with a listed item, the page numbers must be brailled as printed and placed as directed in (2) above.

    8. Material printed on or inside the book cover. If material from the body of the text is reprinted on or inside the front or back cover of the book, this duplication must be ignored in the braille edition. However, when such material is not contained in the text and its use is required by the reader, follow the provisions below.

      1. If the table of contents and/or the index are shown only on or inside the cover, transcribe and place these materials as follows: contents according to Section 7 above, index according to Rule 7, Section 4 .

      2. When use of such material is required throughout the braille edition, it must be placed on a preliminary page in each volume in the order shown in Section 1b above. When occasional use of such material is needed, place the material (or a portion thereof) on a preliminary page of each volume where it is required.

      3. Pages containing such material must be headed as shown in print, starting on the first line (third line, if a running head is used). Notice must be given on the Transcriber's Notes page(s) of the print placement of this material and its preliminary braille page number(s).



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