Braille Formats
Principles of Print to Braille Transcription
1997


Home

Index

Search Formats


Rules
  • Rule 1
  • Rule 2
  • Rule 3
  • Rule 4
  • Rule 5
  • Rule 6
  • Rule 7
  • Rule 8
  • Rule 9
  • Rule 10
  • Rule 11
  • Rule 12
  • Rule 13
  • Rule 14
  • Rule 15
  • Rule 16
  • Rule 17
  • Rule 18
  • Rule 19


    BRL REFERENCE DESK

    BANA Resources Tools and resources Organizations

    Other links
  • Rule 11

    Margin-numbered Texts
    Hymnals and Songbooks

    1. Line-numbered texts. The following provisions apply to the transcription of prose and poetry when lines of the text are shown numbered in either the left or the right margin.

      1. General provisions

          (1) A line number, brailled without the number indicator, must be placed to end at the right margin of the braille line on which the print line begins.

          (2) Do not repeat the line number when a print line requires more than one braille line.

          (3) All line-numbered text and all notes to this text must end so that at least two blank cells are left before the beginning of the longest line number on the braille page.

          (4) No line-numbered text may be placed on the first or the last line of a braille page with the print and braille page numbers. However, any titles or headings that precede line numbered text may be placed on the first line unless a running head is used.

      2. Numbered lines of prose

          (1) Each line of prose must be numbered in braille whether or not all the lines are shown numbered in the print text.

          (2) Follow the print copy for indented or blocked paragraph format.

          (3) When a word is shown divided at the end of a line in print, this division must be shown in braille.

          (4) Where space permits, a new print line should be started on the same braille line after completion of the preceding print line. Three blank cells must be left between the end of the first line and the beginning of the second. The appropriate line number must be placed to end at the right margin.

          (5) Even though space would allow two short print lines to be started and completed on a single braille line, the transcription must be terminated at the end of the first print line. The second print line must be started in cell 1 on the next braille line.

      3. Numbered lines of poetry

          (1) Only the line numbers that are shown in the print text must be indicated in braille.

          (2) Retain the appropriate braille format for poetry provided in Rule 10, Section 1.

          (3) The two-cell margin before line numbers, as required in Section 1a(3) above, must be maintained at the end of each poetic line whether these numbers are actually shown or are simply implied.

      4. References and notes in line-numbered texts

          (1) Notes with print reference marks. Transcribe the print reference marks according to Rule 12, Section 1.

            (a) Notes to regular narrative text. The placement and format of notes that refer to regular narrative text must be according to Rule 12, Section 3b. These notes may be placed on the first or last line of the braille page, and they may extend into the two-cell margin that precedes the line numbers.

            (b) Notes to line-numbered text. The format of notes that refer to line-numbered text must be in accordance with Rule 12, Section 3b; however, these notes must be indented as provided in (4) below.

          (2) Notes without print reference marks. All notes shown without print reference marks must be transcribed according to Rule 12, Sections 2 and 3. These notes may be placed on the first or the last line of a braille page, but if they refer to line-numbered text they may not extend into the two-cell margin preceding the line numbers.

          (3) Notes identified by line number.Although the point in the text to which a note refers is indicated by a print reference mark (e.g., an asterisk or a numbered reference marker), whenever the note itself is identified by the line number observe the following.

            (a) At the appropriate reference point(s) in the text, insert the braille reference indicator (2356, 2356), preceded and followed by a blank cell.

            (b) If it is not possible to determine the exact point of reference within a print line, the braille reference indicator must be placed at the end of the print line.

            (c) Omit the print line number and insert only the braille reference indicator as provided in Rule 12, Section 3b(1) before the note which must be indented according to (4) below.

          (4) Indention of the notes that refer to line-numbered text.

            (a) Each note to line-numbered prose must start in cell 7 with runovers in cell 5.

            (b) Each note to line-numbered poetry must start four cells to the right of the beginning of the runover indention of the poem, whether or not there are runover lines. For example, when runovers of poetic lines begin in cell 3, notes must start in cell 7 with note runovers in cell 5; when runovers of poetic lines begin in cell 5, notes must start in cell 9 with note runovers in cell 7, and so forth.

            (c) Notes to line-numbered text may be placed on the first of the last line of the braille page, but they may not extend into the two-cell margin that precedes the line numbers.

    2. Margin-numbered paragraph When paragraphs of regular narrative text are shown numbered in either the left or right margin follow the directives given in Rule 1, Section 2a(8). For paragraphs showing double or decimal numeration, see Rule 5, Section 6b.

    3. Verse-numbered texts. for the transcription of verse-numbered poetry, see Rule 10, Section 1-1a(4)(a). The transcriber must be aware that specific formats and guidelines are provided by many sponsoring agencies for the transcription of Judeo-Christian scriptures and other religious materials. Some general directives are given for verse-numbered texts.

      1. Book titles, chapter numbers or titles

          (1) Book titles and chapter numbers or titles may be placed on line 1 unless a running head is used.

          (2) Each book title must be treated as a centered heading according to Rule 4, Section 2.

          (3) Each chapter number or title must be centered on the braille line with a blank line preceding but not following it.

      2. Commentaries. Commentaries must be left-aligned in cell 7. If this material follows a print title do not leave a blank line after the title.

      3. Verses and verse numbers

          (1) The first verse of each chapter must begin as an indented paragraph in cell 3 of a new braille line.

          (2) A verse number, brailled without the number indicator, must be placed to end at the right margin of the first braille line in the verse even when the print number is shown at the left-hand margin.

          (3) When a verse requires more than one braille line, do not repeat the verse numbers.

          (4) All braille lines of the text in this format and all notes to that text must end so that at least two blank cells are left before the beginning of the longest verse number of the braille page.

          (5) No braille lines of the text in this format may appear on the first or the last lines of a braille page with the print and braille page numbers.

          (6) Where space permits, a new verse must be started on the same braille line after completion of the preceding verse. Three blank cells must be left between the end of the first verse and the beginning of the second, and the appropriate verse number must be placed to end at the right margin.

          (7) Even though space would allow two short verses to be started and completed on a single braille line, the transcription must be terminated at the end of the first verse. The second verse must be started in cell 1 on the next braille line.

      4. Reference marks and notes in verse-numbered texts

          (1) Transcribe reference marks according to Rule 12, Section 1. The placement and format of notes must be in accordance with Rule 12, Section 3. References to biblical and other religious materials must be brailled according to Rule 1, Section 15c. (2) Notes may be placed on the first or the last line of a braille page with the print and braille page numbers.

          (3) Notes must start in cell 7 with runovers in cell 5.

          (4) Notes must not extend into the two-cell margin that precedes the verse numbers.M

    4. Hymnals and songbooks.

      1. Lyrics without music notation. When a text shows only the words of a song or hymn printed in poetry format, follow the provisions given in Rule 10, Section 1. Numbered verses must be indicated according to the provisions of Rule 10, Section 1a(4)(a).

      2. Lyrics with music notation. The rules provided in the Manual for Braille Music Notation, American Edition, with its International Supplement must be followed in transcribing all music notation, as well as any lyrics shown with that notation.

      3. Lyrics with music notation that is to be omitted. In a text where lyrics of a song or hymn are accompanied by music notation for illustrative purposes only and there is no intention for that notation to be used for practice or performance, omit the music notation in the braille edition. A transcriber's note must be inserted to explain this omission, and the lyrics must be transcribed as directed below.

        NOTE: When a text shows lyrics of the first verse(s) of a song or hymn printed within the music notation followed by the remaining verses printed in poetry format, use the format provided below for all the verses in the braille edition.

          (1) Titles, hymn or song numbers

            (a) The title or number (both, if shown in print) of each hymn or song must be centered of the braille line. Title or numbers may be placed on line 1 unless a running head is used.

            (b) When information is printed below the title, e.g., names of composer, arranger, or date of copyright-not a permission to copy notice--the first of these items must start on the line below the title in cell 7, with runovers in cell 9.

            First present any information that is shown centered below the title, then information from the left side, followed by information from the right side. No blank lines must be left between these items, but a blank line must be left before the first verse. (c) If it is not possible to include the title or number (with any accompanying information) and at least two braille lines of the first verse at the end of a page, the song or hymn must begin on a new braille page.

          (2) Verse numbers and verses

            (a) Whether or not these numbers are shown in print, consecutive verse numbers must be placed starting in cell 1. After one blank cell, begin the lyrics of the verse on the same braille line, with runovers in cell 3.

            (b) Follow the print copy as to capitalization and punctuation of the verses, but omit hyphens that may be printed between syllables.

            (c) Do not attempt to indicate the ends of poetic lines within the verse of a hymn or song.

            (d) No blank lines must be left between verses.

          (3) Refrain or chorus. When a refrain or chorus is shown in print, it must be brailled only once and placed as directed below.

            (a) Whether or not it is shown in print, place the word (Refrain) or (Chorus) enclosed in parentheses starting in cell 1 on the braille line below the last line of the first verse.

            (b) After one blank cell, begin the words of the refrain or chorus on the same braille line, with runovers in cell 3. Omit the hyphens that may be printed between syllables.

            (c) Insert the word (Refrain) or (Chorus) enclosed in parentheses at the end of the last line of each succeeding verse.

            (d) If the refrain or chorus is shown in the text as a repeated verse, usually the first one, do not repeat it in braille. At the end of the last line of each succeeding verse, insert the word Repeat enclosed in parentheses and followed by the number of the verse that is to be repeated, e.g., (Repeat 1).

      4. Reference marks and notes in hymns and songs

          (1) Reference marks must be transcribed according to Rule 12, Section 1. The placement and format of notes must be in accordance with Rule 12, Section 3.

          (2) Notes shown in hymns or songs that are printed and brailled in poetry format must be brailled as provided in Rule 10, Section 1e.

          (3) Notes shown in hymns or songs that are brailled as provided in Section 4c above must start in cell 7 with runovers in cell 5.



    Developed by
    The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

    Copyright © 1996 -