Braille Formats
Principles of Print to Braille Transcription
1997


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  • Rule 14
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  • Rule 14

    Displayed Material, Intentional Errors
    Blanks and Omissions, Corrections

    NOTE: Even though they may be labeled as Examples, the sample or model questions with answers provided that are shown in exercise and test materials must be transcribed according to Rule 13, Section 4.

    1. Displayed Material. Examples that are displayed, i.e., set off from the body of the text by blank lines, change of margins, reduced type, or special typeface, must be transcribed as follows.

      1. A single example or a series of examples must be preceded and followed by a blank line. If a heading is shown in print, follow the provisions given in Rule 4.

      2. No blank lines must be left between individual items in a series of such examples unless required by other braille formats.

      3. Special typefaces must be ignored except when required by other braille formats.

      4. Follow the print copy for material that is printed in paragraph form. Indented paragraphs must begin in cell 3 with runovers in cell 1, blocked paragraphs must begin in cell 1 with runovers also in cell 1.

      5. A single word or a sentence must begin in cell 1. The runover(s) of a sentence must begin in cell 3.

      6. When a series of single words or phrases is shown widely spaced apart on the same print line, these words or phrases must be brailled with three blank cells separating them.

          (1) The first word must begin in cell 1, and all runovers of such a series must begin in cell 3.

          (2) Whenever possible a phrase should not be divided between braille lines. In order to make the spacing between phrases apparent to the reader, it may be necessary to begin each succeeding phrase on a new braille line in cell 3.

      7. Listed items must each begin in cell 1 with runovers in cell 3.

      8. Columned materials must be transcribed according to Rule 7, Section 1.

      9. The indention of dialogue and poetry must be in accordance with Rules 9 and 10.

    2. Intentional errors. When an exercise involves either the identification and/or the correction of errors shown in text, the manner of transcription must not indicate an answer choice or provide a solution.

      1. Unmarked errors. A text with unmarked intentional errors in spelling, punctuation, or grammar that are to be identified and/or corrected by the reader must be carefully examined to determine whether or not to use contracted braille.

      2. Marked errors. When a print text calls attention to errors that are specifically set off by means of special typeface, underling, colors of type, etc., follow the directives below.

          (1) Special print typeface, underlining, and colors must be transcribed as provided in Rule 3.

          (2) All words containing specifically marked errors in spelling must be transcribed in uncontracted braille.

          (3) When all punctuation marks are in error and are specifically set off and emphasized in print text, this must be ignored in braille. A transcriber's note must be inserted to explain that special print marking of all punctuation has been omitted.

          (4) If only certain punctuation marks are in error and are emphasized by means of special typeface or underlining, follow the directives given in Rule 6, Section 1d(3).

      3. Marked text with and without errors. The transcriber must carefully examine the print text to determine whether or not to use contracted braille when specially marked portions of the text contain both correct and incorrect forms. Specially marked text must be transcribed in accordance with the provisions given in Rule 3.

    3. Incomplete or indefinite dates. When the text shows a hyphen, dash, or question mark with the numbers of a date, see Rule 5, Section 4a(5).

    4. Blanks and Omissions. This Code section contains provisions for transcribing the blanks and omissions found in regular narrative text. Refer to the Code rules and sections listed below for special provisions to be followed in transcribing blanks and omissions shown in other textbook materials.

      Columned material in stairstep format, Rule 7, Section 1f(3)(d)br> Columns of related items, Rule 7, Section 1f(3)(b)
      Exercises, drills, and tests, Rule 13, Section 8a
      Glossaries, vocabularies, and dictionaries, Rule 19, Section 7c
      Tables, Rule 8, Sections 8e and 9e(2)

      1. Print dashes or blanks indicating omissions of whoe words The braille double dash (36, 36, 36, 36), preceded and followed by a blank cell, must be used to represent a print dash or blank space that indicates omission of a whole word. Contractions for to, into, and by must not precede the braille double dash.

      2. Print dashes indicating omitted parts of words. When the text refers to spelling or pronunciation, uncontracted braille must be used in transcribing portions of words that are shown unspaced from print dashes. The contractions for to, into, and by must not precede these word parts.

          (1) The braille double dash, unspaced from the letters of the word, must be used to represent a print dash or blank space that indicates omission of part of a word.

          (2) If a print dash indicates omission of a component of a hyphenated compound word, print hyphen(s) that are in contact with this dash must be represented by the braille compound hyphen (25, 25). This symbol must be included in the special symbols list according to Rule 2, Section 5.

      3. Divided words showing omissions.A word containing a dash to represent missing letters must not be divided at the end of a braille line unless it is shown divided in the print text.

          (1) If the text refers to spelling or pronunciation such words must be written in uncontracted braille.

          (2) When a word is shown divided before the print dash, follow the print copy using the regular hyphen at the end of the first line.

          (3) When a word is shown divided after the print dash, the braille middle hyphen (25) must follow the braille double dash at the end of the first line. This symbol must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

          (4) When a hyphenated compound word is shown divided after the print dash that represents one of the component words, the braille compound hyphen (25, 25) must follow the braille double dash at the end of the first line. This symbol must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

      4. Omitted letters. Uncontracted braille must be used in transcribing words showing omitted letters when the text refers to spelling or pronunciation.

          (1) If the text shows dots to indicate missing letters, an equivalent number of unspaced dot 3s must be used.

          (2) When the text shows hyphens to indicate missing letters, an equivalent number of unspaced braille hyphens must be used.

    5. Crossed-out Items For the transcription of facsimiles of materials that show extensive editing and/or proofreading marks, follow the directives given in Section 6 below.

      1. Crossed-out letters. Do not confuse crossed-out letters with diacritic barred letters. Letters shown with this diacritic marking must be transcribed in accordance with Rule 18, Section 3f(4).

          (1) When words in a list or words that are displayed as examples are shown with crossed-out letters, insert a transcriber's note to explain that crossed-out letters are replaced by hyphens. Braille each word in its uncontracted form, followed by one blank cell by the word in uncontracted form, with hyphens substituted for the crossed-out letters.

          (2) If crossed-out letters are shown in words that appear in sentences or phrases, follow the format given in (1) above. However, in this case enclose the second braille form of the word in parentheses and amend the transcriber's note to include this information.

      2. Crossed-out letters with substitutions shown. When the text shows words with crossed-out letters and indicates other letters to be substituted for them, such words must be written in uncontracted braille. Insert an unspaced middle hyphen (25) before and after the crossed-out letters, followed unspaced by the substituted letters. Explain this usage in a transcriber's note. The middle hyphen symbol must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

      3. Crossed-out words.
          (1) When a whole word is shown crossed out in the text, braille that word in its contracted form enclosed in parentheses. Insert a transcriber's note to explain that crossed-out words are shown in parentheses.

          (2) In a print text where parentheses are used for other purposes, crossed-out words must be set off by symbols of enclosure given in Rule 6, Section 2b that are not otherwise used in the surrounding text. These symbols must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

      4. Crossed-out words with substitutions shown.

          (1) When a substitution is shown printed above a crossed-out word or words, in braille the crossed-out word(s) must be enclosed in parentheses and followed after a blank cell by the substitution. Insert a transcriber's note to explain that crossed-out words are shown in parentheses followed by the substitution shown in the text.

          (2) In a print text where parentheses are used for other purposes, crossed-out words must be set off by symbols of enclosure given in Rule 6, Section 2b that are not otherwise used in the surrounding text. These symbols must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

    6. Insertions, edited copy, proofreading works
      1. Inserted letters
          (1) Follow the print copy and use uncontracted braille in transcribng words that show an inserted letter or letters enclosed in parentheses.

          (2) When the text indicates the substitution of one letter for another by inserting the second letter in parentheses immediately after the original letter, follow the print copy, using uncontracted braille for all the affected words.

      2. Inserted words or phrases with no deletions shown
          (1) When a word or phrase is shown above or below a printed line to indicate that an insertion is to be made, the braille double dash representing the print line must be followed unspaced by the word or phrase enclosed in parentheses. A transcriber's note must be inserted to explain this usage.

          (2) When the print caret sign (^) is used to indicate that an insertion is to be made, the braille caret symbol (35, 26) must precede the insertion and the termination symbol (6,3) must follow it. Each of these braille symbols must be preceded and followed by a blank cell. Either the caret symbol or the termination symbol may begin a braille line. When used in a text, these symbols must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

      3. Edited copy, proofreading marks. As the print signs used in editing or proofreading print copy have no practical value for the braille reader, no braille symbols have been assigned to represent proofreading marks. Do not attempt to devise braille symbols to represent these print signs.

          (1) When a list of proofreading marks is shown, transcribe this material as follows. Starting in cell1, give the name or a brief description of each print mark followed by the meaning or function of the mark as stated in the print text. Runovers must begin in cell 3.

          (2) If examples or facsimilies of proof-read copy show only simple deletions and insertions but no transpositions, use different kinds of enclosure symbols to set off these materials. For example, use square brackets to enclose material to be deleted and quotation marks to enclose material that is to be added. This usage must be explained in a transcriber's note.

          (3) When a text shows extensive transposition, insertions, and/or corrections that cannot be reproduced in braille, the following format is recommended. First, present the original form of the material, then present the material amended as shown in the text. The original and amended versions must be appropriately identifed and an transcriber's note must be inserted to explain this usage.



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