Braille Formats
Principles of Print to Braille Transcription
1997


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  • Rule 4

    Headings

    1. General provisions

      1. Print headings. Print textbooks use various methods to distinguish headings: different sizes, colors, and kinds of typefaces, as well as different placements on the page. In each transcription it will be necessary to establish a pattern for presentation of the print headings. This should be done only after a careful examination of headings as they appear in the table of contents and in the body of the text. It is important to be consistent in the treatment of similar print headings throughout the entire braille transcription.

      2. Braille headings. In a braille text distinction is shown by only four kinds of headings: centered, cell-5, paragraph, and column headings. Obviously, braille paragraph and column headings may be used only to represent their print counterparts. As a general rule, centered braille headings should be used to represent the print headings for subsections shown within major text units. However, specific provisions are given in other sections of this Code rule governing the use and placement of these braille headings.
        The following general provisions apply to all braille headings.

          (1) Where one blank line is required in regular braille format, two blank lines must be left when transcribing materials for use in kindergarten and first grade.

          (2) A braille heading may be placed on the first line of the braille page. When a running head is used, follow the provisions given in Rule 1, Section 12b(3).

          (3) Do not leave a blank line before any braille heading that follows the page change indicator, a top box line, or a top table line.

          (4) Follow the print copy for capitalization. Ignore special typefaces except where required for emphasis or distinction.

          (5) If a long print heading requires more than one braille line, it must be placed on consecutive braille lines.

          (6) When a print heading consists of a text section name and number in addition to a title, such as Chapter 1 First American Colonists, place this material on one braille line if space permits. For longer headings, place the name and number on one line and the title on the next consecutive line(s). However, if a text shows both short and long headings accompanied by text sections names and numbers, for consistency in the braille edition, use the same format for all headings within the same category.

          (7) Follow the print copy for use of the hyphen, dash, color, or slash in headings. However, the decimal point-not the period-must be used when brailling the numbers of headings that are identified by the number of the chapter separated by a print dot from the number of an item within the chapter.

          (8) When it is not possible to include the heading(s) and at least one following line of braille text at the end of a page, the heading(s) must be carried over to a new braille page. EXCEPTION: This does not apply to paragraph, list, and column headings. Formats for material following these headings are provided in other sections of this Code, as follows.

          Column headings, Rule 7, Sections 1b and 1c
          Column headings in tables, Rule 8, Section 6
          Headings of lists, Rule 7, Section 2a(7)(b)
          Paragraph headings, Section 4b below

    2. Centered braille headings

      1. A centered braille heading may be followed by any kind of braille heading: centered, cell-5, paragraph, or column heading.

      2. Material following a centered braille heading may include:

        Author's names following titles that precede text
        Boxed material
        Dialogue
        Listed items
        Multiple-column lists
        Narrative text
        Numbered or lettered items
        Poetry
        Side-by-side columns
        Tables

      3. A centered braille heading must be centered on the braille line(s), with at least three blank cells left at the beginning and end of each line.
        NOTE: On the first line of the braille page, a heading must be centered on the available cells, i.e., at least the blank cells must be left at both the beginning of the line and before the print page number.
      4. A centered braille heading must be preceded and followed by a blank line except as noted in Sections 1b(2) and (3) above and in the following instances.

          (1) Repeated centered headings

            (a) No blank line is required between the running head and a centered heading that is repeated on one or more consecutive braille pages. This also applies to table titles and labels.

            (b) No blank line is required below a repeated centered heading unless another centered heading or a cell-5 heading immediately follows.

          (2) Top box or table lines. No blank line is required between a centered braille heading and a top box or table line that follows.

          (3) Credit lines, source citations. See Rule 1, Section 18b(2)(d) when a credit line or source citation--not an author's name--accompanies a centered title.

          (4) Reference notes. No blank line must be left between a centered heading and a note that accompanies it, as provided in Section 7b below.

    3. Cell-5 braille headings

      1. A braille paragraph heading is the only kind of heading that may follow a cell-5 braille heading.

      2. Materials that may directly follow a cell-5 braille heading include:

        Boxed material
        Dialogue
        Listed items printed in a single column
        Narrative text
        Numbered or lettered items

      3. A cell-5 braille heading must be:

          (1) Preceded by a blank line except as provided in Section 1b(2) and (3) above.

          (2) Started in cell 5 with runovers also in cell 5.

          (3) Followed on the line immediately below by accompanying text or by a braille paragraph heading. No blank line must be left after a cell-5 braille heading.

    4. Braille paragraph headings. For numbered paragraph headings, see Rule 1, Sections 2a(8)(a) and (b).

      1. A braille paragraph heading must be:

          (1) Started in cell 3 with runovers in cell 1 for indented paragraphs or aligned in cell 1 for blocked paragraphs.

          (2) Followed by regular text on the same braille line wherever space permits.

      2. A braille paragraph heading may start on the last or next-to-last line of a page whether or not there is space on the page for the beginning of the regular text that follows it.

      3. When paragraph headings are printed in only one special typeface throughout the text, they must be italicized in braille.

      4. When paragraph headings are printed in several special typefaces and it is necessary to preserve the distinction between them, follow the provisions given in Rule 3, Section 1d.

    5. Braille column headings. For the transcription of column headings that appear in tables, see Rule 8, Section 6.

      1. A braille column heading may be followed only by a single column of vertically arranged unnumbered or unlettered items showing no subitems.

      2. A braille column heading must be:

          (1) Preceded by a blank line except as provided in Section 1b(2) and (3) above.

          (2) Left-adjusted above its respective column.

          (3) Followed on the line immediately below by a horizontal separation line whether or not such a line appears in print. The separation line must begin at the left margin of the column with dot 5 followed by an unspaced series of dots 25 extending across the full width of the column.

    6. Headings in colored type. When headings are printed in color and it is necessary to indicate these colors, follow the provisions in Rule 3, Section 2.

    7. Reference marks and notes to headings

      1. Reference marks must be transcribed according to the provisions of Rule 12, Section 1. The format of notes must be in accordance with Rule 12, Section 3b.

      2. Placement of notes to centered or cell-5 braille headings. Notes to a centered or a cell-5 braille heading must be placed starting on the line immediately below the completed heading.

          (1) The reference indicator(s) preceding the note(s) must start in cell 7, with runovers of the note(s) in cell 5. No blank line must be left between notes when more than one is shown.

          (2) A blank line must be left after the note(s) following a centered braille heading, but not after the note(s) that follow a cell-5 braille heading.

          (3) Where needed for clarity, notes to centered or cell-5 braille headings that occupy more than one braille line may be transcribed according to Section 7c below.

      3. Placement of notes to braille column headings

          (1) Before the heading insert a transcriber's note as follows.

          Note shown with the heading below.

          (2) Place the note itself on the next line, preceded by the appropriate reference indicator starting in cell 7, with runovers of the note in cell 5.

          (3) Leave a blank line following completion of the note to separate it from the heading.

      4. Placement of notes to braille paragraph headings. Each note must be placed on the line below that on which reference to it appears. The reference indicator preceding the note must start in cell 7, with runovers of the note in cell 5. No blank line must precede or follow the note. When necessary, a note to a paragraph heading that falls at the bottom of a braille page may be placed at the top of the following page.



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