Braille Formats
Principles of Print to Braille Transcription
1997


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  • Rule 12

    Notes, Note Sections, Other Marginal Material

    1. Notes with print reference marks. For the purposes of this Code section a print reference mark is defined as any superior number, letter, or character printed in running text, a table, list, or illustration to indicate that there is a note to what is being discussed and to identify which note.
      NOTE: In line-numbered texts, all notes that are identified by line numbers must be brailled according to Rule 11, Sections 1d(3) and (4).

      1. Numbered or lettered reference marks.Superior numbers or letters are usually printed after the reference point after the reference point in the text (word1orworda) and preceding the note itself (1note, 1. note, anote,ora. note).

          (1) Each numbered reference mark must be represented in braille by the symbol dots 35,35 followed by the unspaced number indicator and a number.

          (2) Each lettered reference mark must be represented in braille by the symbol dots 35, 35 followed by the unspaced letter indicator and a letter.

      2. Superior reference marks.Superior reference marks are usually printed after the point of reference in the text (word*orword) and preceding the note itself (*noteornote). The customary sequence of print reference marks is as follows: * asterisk, dagger, double dagger, § section sign, || parallels, ¶ paragraph sign, ° hollow dot.

          (1) The braille reference symbols listed below do not represent specific print reference marks. Instead, they may representanyprint reference marks in accordance with the following directives.

          dots 3-5dots 3-5
          dots 2-6dots 2-6
          dots 4-5-6dots 3-5dots 3-5
          dots 4-5-6dots 2-6dots 2-6
          dots 3-5dots 3-5dots 3-5
          dots 2-6dots 2-6dots 2-6

          (2) If only one print reference mark is used in a text, it must be represented by the first listed braille reference symbol, dots 35, 35.

          (3) When two or more print reference marks are used in a text, they must be represented by braille reference symbols in the order in which they are listed, i.e., use the first symbol in the list to represent the most frequently used print reference mark, the second listed symbol to represent the next print mark, and so forth.

          (4) If one or more print reference marks are used throughout a text for specific purpose(s), as when an asterisk is printed preceding all grammatical errors, such recurring mark(s) must be represented by the first symbol(s) in the list above. For regular reference marks appearing with notes in the text, use the other listed symbols in descending order.

      3. Format for braille symbols representing print reference marks

          (1) The braille symbol that represents the print reference mark must be placed as shown in the text, i.e., before or after the reference point.

          (2) Each complete braille reference symbol must be preceded and followed by a blank cell.

          (3) Insert braille reference symbols after any punctuation mark except the dash.

          (4) When more than one print reference mark is shown at the same point of reference, each of these marks must be brailled as a separate symbol. Follow the print copy for the order and/or punctuation of these symbols.

          (5) Words or phrases to which reference is made may be divided at the ends of braille lines. Each braille reference symbol must be placed in the same braille line as the word (or portion thereof) to which it refers.

          (6) Regardless of the number of braille reference symbols it may contain, a braille line of text must be completed before inserting the accompanying note or notes.

      4. Braille reference symbols that are used in a text must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5. In the explanation of a symbol, the print reference mark that it represents must be identified by its customary name. Print and braille placement of the mark (before or after the reference point) must be given also. Any special significance of the mark or its use must be given as explained in the text.

    2. Notes without print reference marks

      1. Format for unmarked reference points.To identify reference points in the text and notes to them that are shown without any of the print reference marks described in Section 1 above, use the braille reference indicator(2356, 2356) as provided below. This indicator must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

          (1) References shown by special typefaces or underlining.When the word(s) to which a note refers are identified are identified only by a special type-face or underlining, retain the print typeface in accordance with the provisions of Rule 3, Section 1, and insert the braille reference indicator after the designated word(s).

          (2) References shown by lines, arrows, or boxes

            (a) If the point in the text to which a note refers is identified only by one of these print devices, insert the braille reference indicator after the designated word.

            (b) When lines, arrows, and/or boxes are used to indicate reference to more than one word,those words must be considered to be underlined and they must be brailled according to Rule 3, Section 1c or 1d, depending upon the typefaces used in the surrounding text.

          (3) Braille reference indicator.At the reference point in the text, the braille reference indicator must be preceded and followed by a blank cell. This indicator must also preceded the accompanying note brailled according to Section 3b below.

            (a) Insert the braille reference indicator in the text after each word, term, or phrase that is referred to in the accompanying note.

            (b) Words or phrases to which reference is made may be divided at the ends of braille lines. The braille reference indicator must be placed on the same braille line as the word (or portion thereof) to which it refers.

            (c) When a line of text contains several unmarked reference points, each must be brailled as a separate reference. Regardless of the number of braille as a separate reference indicators it may contain, a braille line of text must be completed before inserting the notes.

            (d) When several notes are shown beside a single line of print text, the individual notes must be brailled separately, i.e., each must be preceded by the braille reference indicator. If an ellipses is shown, see Section 3b(6)(b) below.

      2. Unmarked marginal and gloss notes.Marginal notes consist of words or phrases placed in the margin beside a particular line of text in order to provide pronunciations, definitions, or other explanations. When the print text contains such a running gloss, use the braille reference indicator as directed in Section 2a(3) above.
        NOTE:Words in these notes shown followed by pronunciations that are brailled according to Rule 18 must be transcribed in contracted braille. Only foreign words that are shown preceding pronunciations require the use of uncontracted braille.

      3. Unmarked permission to copy notices.The braille reference indicator must be inserted after a title or other item that is cited in an unmarked permission to copy notice. When several notices are shown at the foot of a page, the individual notes must be brailled separately, i.e., each must be preceded by the braille reference indicator.

      4. Distinguishing between different kinds of unmarked notes.The braille reference indicators listed below (or similar ones devised according to the principle illustrated in the list) are to be used only when it is necessary for the reader to distinguish between different types of unmarked notes shown in the text. When used in a text, these indicators must be included in the special symbols list in a accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

        dots dots 2-3-5-6 dots dots 2-3-5-6dots 1-2-4-5 gloss note indicator
        dots dots 2-3-5-6 dots dots 2-3-5-6dots 2-4 interlinear note indicator
        dots 1-2-3-4-5-6dots 1-2-3-4-5-6dots 1-2-3 line-numbered note indicator
        dots 1-2-3-4-5-6dots 1-2-3-4-5-6ots 1-3-4 marginal note indicator

      5. Unmarked cross-references and incidental notes.When unmarked cross-references and incidental notes, e.g., See chapter 4 orAnswers on page 145,are printed outside or between the paragraphs of narrative text, ignore any special typeface and transcribe such notes withoutthe braille reference indicator. A blank line must precede and follow the note brailled flush left beginning in cell 7.

    3. Note placement and format. Notes may be printed in the text as follows.

      At the foot of the page
      In the margin
      Between lines of narrative text
      In columns facing the narrative text
      On a page facing the narrative text
      Immediately above or below columned or tubular material
      In a note section, either at the end of each chapter or at the back of the book.

      1. Note placement. Provisions for the placement and indention of notes in certain braille formats are given as follows.

      2. Note format.

          (1) General provisions

            (a) In regular narrative text, a note must be placed on the braille line immediately below that to which reference to it appears. When a line of text contains several reference points, the notes must follow in the order shown in the print. Each note must start in cell 7 with runovers in cell 5.

            (b) Ignore special typeface unless it is required for emphasis or distinction. References to source materials must be transcribed according to Rule 1, Section 15c.

            (c) No blank lines must be left before or after a note or between the notes in a series except as provided in cross-references in Section 2e above or when required by other braille formats.

            (d) Each note must be preceded by the same braille reference symbol or indicator that is used at the point of reference in the text. The reference symbol must be brailled without any of the following punctuation even though a period or other punctuation may be shown in the print text.

            (e) A blank cell must be left between the braille reference symbol and the beginning of the note, which must follow on the same braille line.

            (f) After completion of a note or notes, the text must be resumed using the appropriate left margin.

          (2) Repeated references to a note

            (a) When a text makes repeated references to the same note, insert that note at the point where the first reference to it occurs.

            (b) In succeeding references, insert the appropriate braille references symbol at the point shown in the text. On the next braille line, place the same reference symbol used at the point of reference. After one blank cell, give the location of the original note using the print page number (with lettered continuation, if any) and braille line number, e.g., Page a119, line 12.Braille line numbers must be determined according to Rule 1, Section 15b(2).

          (3) Note continued on another page. When a note is shown continued on another print page or pages, the entire note must be brailled as if it were on the print page where the reference to it is given. However, when the continuation of a note is the only material on a print page or pages, the beginning of each of these pages must be indicated in the braille edition.

          (4) Notes on facing pages.In transcribing notes printed on pages that face regular text, the combined print page numbers must be shown. Any lettered continuation pages required must also carry the combined print page numbers. Follow the directives for braille reference symbols, note placement, and format that are given in the preceding sections of this Code rule.

          (5) Notes containing quoted matter. When a note contains quoted matter that is set off from the body of the note by blank lines, quotation marks, change of margins, and/or change of typeface, follow the provisions given in Rule 1, Section 17a. The cell number that is used for runovers of the note must be considered as the margin when indenting quoted matter in the note.

          (6) Notes containing ellipses

            (a) Ellipses shown between related words. When a note contains an ellipsis separating related words, e.g., between the first and last words of a phrase or where an ellipsis shows omission of words in a passage, the braille reference symbol must be inserted in the text after the word that concludes the phrase or the last word of the passage.

            (b) Ellipses shown between unrelated words. If a note contains an ellipsis separating unrelated words or terms, each of which is defined in a separate note, omit the ellipsis in the braille edition and insert the braille reference symbol after each of the words or terms in the text. Transcribe the glossed words or terms as separate notes.

          (7) Notes containing dialogue or verse

            (a) Notes written in dialogue form must be brailled according to Rule 9, Section 1b.

            (b) Notes written in verse form must be brailled according to Rule 10, Section 1a(2).

            (c) The cell number that is used for runovers of the original note must be considered as the margin when counting the indentions required for any notes written in dialogue or verse formats.

          (8) Notes referring to other notes. When a note refers to material that is itself a note, the second note must start four cells to the right of the beginning of the original note, e.g., if the fist note begins in cell 7 with runovers in cell 5, a note to it must begin in cell 11 with runovers in cell 9.

          (9) Notes containing words with pronunciations. Transcribe such words using contracted braille. Only foreign words that are shown preceding pronunciations require uncontracted braille. Pronunciations must be brailled as follows: unstressed diacritics according to Rule 18, Section 2; diacritics according to Rule 18, Section 3; phonetics according to Rule 18, Section 4.

    4. Note Sections

      1. Placement of note sections

          (1) Follow the print copy for the placement of note sections that are shown at the end of each chapter.

          (2) Notes that are shown in a note section at the back of the print text should generally be placed at the end of the braille volume in which references to them appear. To indicate such a transposition in the braille edition, follow the provisions given in Rule 1, Section 11.

      2. General provisions for note sections

          (1) A note section must begin on a new braille page.

          (2) On the first line (third line, if a running head is used) place NOTES as a centered heading. However, if the texts shows another heading for the note section, follow the print copy.

          (3) Leave a blank line before inserting the following transcriber's note.

               Note references are presented in the following order: print page number, reference indicator, braille line number.

      3. Format for notes in a note section

          (1) In cell 1, place the print page number, showing any lettered continuation. After one blank cell insert the braille reference symbol used at the point of reference in the text. Leave one blank cell and insert the braille line number, preceded by the unspaced letter l. Braille line numbers must be determined in accordance with Rule 1, Section 15b(2). After one blank cell, begin the note.

          (2) All runovers must start in cell 3.

          (3) In the notes, all references to source materials must be brailled according to Rule 1, Section 15c.

          (4) When more than one note refers to the same print page, this page number must precede each note.

          (5) If notes are printed without reference to page numbers, the transcriber must insert the appropriate print page numbers or lettered continuation page numbers.

          (6) When reference is given to print line numbers, the appropriate line number must follow the print page number (with lettered continuation, if any) and the transcriber's note must be reworded to include this presentation.

          (7) If a braille reference symbol appears on a print page that begins within a braille page, i.e., below the page change indicator on a lettered continuation page, the actual print page number on the note appears must be used.

      4. Note section in text that shows no printed reference marks.

          (1) Each note must be preceded by a print page number and/or print line number.

          (2) The transcriber must not attempt to insert the braille reference symbol within the body of the text or to indicate lettered continuation page numbers and/or braille line numbers in the note section.

      5. Page numbering in note sections

          (1) If the pages of a note section are numbered in the print text, they must be similarly numbered in braille according to the provisions of Rule 1, Section 13. The running braille page numbers should be consecutive to those of the preceding text.

          (2) If the pages in a note section are not numbered, do not insert page numbers in the braille edition. When it is necessary to indicate page changes on these unnumbered pages, insert a full row of unspaced dots 36 across the braille page.

      6. Other marginal material Materials other than notes that are printed in the margins of a text must be transcribed as directed below.

        1. General provisions for marginal material

            (1) Headings.A heading that is printed in the margin must be brailled as a heading in accordance with Rule 4.

            (2) Indexes.An index that duplicates words in the narrative text and is intended as a visual aid in scanning the print page must be omitted in braille. Such an omission must be noted on the Transcriber's Notes page(s) in Volume 1 only.

            (3) When a particular form of marginal material that requires explanation is shown throughout a text, explain the braille format on the Transcriber's Notes page(s) in each volume of the braille edition.

            (4) When a particular form of marginal material that requires explanation appears infrequently in a text, a transcriber's note must be inserted before the appropriate section of the text to explain the braille format.

        2. Formats for some kinds of marginal material

            (1) Commentaries, queries, summaries.Such material, printed in the margin beside narrative text but not related to any specific point in the text, must be preceded by the braille reference indicator (2356, 2356) and placed as a note at the most appropriate location, either before or after completion of the adjoining text.

            (2) Labels.See Rule 8, Section 4 for table labels and titles. For labels and titles. For labels and captions of illustrations, see Rule 17, Sections 1d and 2.

              (a) Labels that are printed in the margin to identify specific term, words, or phrases within the narrative text must be brailled as marginal notes according to Section 2b above.

              (b) When a label printed in the margin beside a section of the regular text does not have a specific reference point, it must be preceded by the braille reference indicator (2356,2356) and placed as a note before the text it accompanies.

              (c) Keying technique for marginal labels. When the text shows numerous marginal labels and/or if labels are accompanied by lengthy description or explanations of items in the narrative text, the following keying technique may be used.

                [1] Sequences of key numbers and/or letters, each consisting of no more than three braille cells, should be assigned to represent the marginal labels. When it is appropriate, any combination of letters that is logically related to the print labels should be used whether or not the letter combinations correspond to short-form words.

                [2] Before the text to which the labels apply, insert a transcriber's note containing the key, i.e., a listing of key numbers or letters, each preceded by the braille reference indicator (2356, 2356) and followed by the marginal label or note. A blank line must precede and follow this key.

                [3] In most cases items in the key should be listed in the order in which label references occur in the accompanying text unless a different order would be more appropriate. The braille reference indicator must begin in cell 1, followed unspaced by the key number or letter(s). After one blank cell, begin the marginal label or note, with runovers in cell 3. The closing transcriber's note symbol must follow the last item in the list.

                [4] The braille reference indicator must precede each number or letter key that is inserted in the text at the point identified by the marginal label. When the text material that is referred to consists of more than one word, it must be enclosed by braille enclosure symbols that are not otherwise used in the surrounding text.

            (3) Outline of topics.When sentences or phrases that outline the topics covered are printed in the margin beside a section of regular text, the marginal material must be preceded by the braille reference indicator (2356,2356) and it must be placed as a note before the text to which it applies.

            (4) Extraneous material.Miscellaneous or extraneous material may be shown anywhere on the print page. If it has no discernible relationship to any part of the narrative text, it should be inserted after the completion of all regular text of the page. This material must be transcribed using appropriate format, and a blank line must be left before inserting the page change indicator.



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