Braille Formats
Principles of Print to Braille Transcription
1997


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  • Rule 15

    Spellers, Grammars, and Sentence Diagramming

    1. Spellers. Provisions given Rule 1, Section 2-5 and 7 must also be observed.

      1. Cursive handwriting. Exercises and other sections of the text that deal with the learning or practice of handwriting and handprinting are usually not applicable in teaching these skills to braille readers; therefore, they should be omitted. However, if word lists and other essential lesson materials are shown only in simulated handwriting or handprinting, ignore the special typeface and include these materials in the braille edition.

      2. Marked new words. If new words in stories, examples, or other lesson materials are identified in the print text by means of special typeface, underlining, colors of type, etc., they must be brailled as followed.

          (1) In spellers for school grades 1 and 2, insert the new word indicator (123456, 123456) before each new word. This symbol must be preceded and followed by a blank cell, and it must be included in the special symbol list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

          (2) In all other spellers, follow the provisions given in Rule 3 for the transcription of special typefaces, underlining, and colors of type used to indicate new words.

      3. List of words. Lists of words must be transcribed according to Rule 7, Section 2. If an identical list of words is repeated within a lesson or other text section, transcribe the first list and omit the other(s) in the braille edition. Notice of the omission of these duplicate lists must be given on the Transcriber's Notes page in Volume 1 only.

          (1) Word list. Special typeface shown for entire lists of spelling words must be ignored. Each word must be written in contracted braille. If a word contains a contraction it must be followed after one blank cell by its uncontracted form.

          (2) Words with definitions. When listed words are shown followed by definitions with no intervening punctuation, ignore any special typeface used in the text and insert two blank cells to separate the word from its definition.

          (3) Specially marked words in lists. See Rule 3, Section 5 for the transcription of specially marked words in lists.

      4. Scrambled words. Transcribe scrambled words in uncontracted braille. Do not use the contractions for to, into, and by before scrambled words.

      5. Syllabified words. Follow the provisions in Rule 1, Section 5a.

    2. Grammars. In addition to provisions given in other sections of this Code rule, refer to the table of contents and the index for directions needed in transcribing various print formats that are shown in grammars.

      1. Conjugations, declensions, comparative forms. Where space limitations require a modification of the print format, a careful examination of the text is needed to determine a method of braille presentation that will best convey the intention of the author.

          (1) See Rule 6, Section 3b when this material is shown in a box.

          (2) If the materials are shown as a chart i.e., in related side-by-side columns, follow the provisions in Rule 7, Section 1f. The items in each of these related columns must begin on the same braille line even though items in some columns require more lines than others.

          (3) When the materials are shown as a table i.e., where first column items are necessary for an understanding of items in the other columns, follow the provisions in Rule 8. Items in the second and following columns must begin on the same braille line on which the items in the first column end.

      2. Enlarged enclosure signs. If enlarged parentheses, brackets, or other print enclosure signs are used to group material that is printed on several lines of the text, follow the provisions given in Rule 6, Section 2c.

      3. Mathematical and nonalphabetical signs. See Rule 5, Section 2 for lists of braille symbols used to represent mathematical and nonalphabetical signs which must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

          (1) When a print text shows the ratio sign (:), meaning is to, and the proportion sign (::), meaning as, with comparisons of word pairs, use the following braille symbols to represent the print signs: ratio symbol (5,2), proportion symbol (56,23). A blank cell must precede and follow each of these symbols.

          (2) To represent the print sign shown separating the subject and predicate in a sentence or phrase, use the vertical bar symbol(4,1256) for a print vertical bar or the slash symbol (456,34) for a print slash. Follow print copy for the spacing of these symbols.

      4. Print shapes. If print shapes are used in a text solely for visual interest they must be omitted in braille. However, when these print shapes are used to give constant reference to certain information in the text, follow the provisions given in Rule 5, Section 3.

      5. Punctuation emphasized or in unusual configurations. Follow the provisions given in Rule 6, Section 1.

      6. Words or abbreviations printed above sentences. Follow the provisions in Rule 5, Section 5a.

    3. Sentence diagramming. For the purpose of this Code section, a sentence diagram is considered to be any graphic design intended to show an analysis of or a relationship between various parts of a sentence. As there are many systems of sentence diagramming, it is not possible to give explicit directions for brailling all kinds of print diagrams. Formats are given below for the transcription of two kinds of braille sentence diagrams-linear and spatial.

      NOTE: A braille sentence diagram must be preceded and followed by a blank line. Wherever possible, do not divide a sentence diagram between braille pages.

      1. Linear diagrams. In linear diagramming only a single braille line is required to present the material shown on each line of the print diagram except where runovers are necessary. These diagrams may contain single or multiple underlining, colored underlining, circled, or boxed words.

          (1) Diagrams showing underlined words. When only single, multiple, or colored underlining is used to identify the parts of a sentence, the underlined words must be indicated in accordance with the provisions given in Rule 3, Section 1d(3).

          (2) Diagrams showing circled words, words in boxes. If sentence parts are identified by means of circles, small boxes, or other enclosures, follow the provisions given in Rule 3, Section 3.

      2. Spatial diagrams. A minimum of two braille lines is required to present the material shown on each line of a print spatial diagram.

          (1) Spatial sentence diagrams showing arrows. When a text includes an extensive series of diagrammed sentences showing arrows, follow this format. Braille the first sentence diagram as directed below, then insert a transcriber's note similar to that shown in Section 3b(1)(b)[4] below to describe each of the remaining spatial sentence diagrams.

            (a) When the text shows arrows pointing left and right and placed above or below sentences, follow the print copy for placement and direction of the arrows in braille. A blank line must precede an arrow that is shown above a sentence. If an arrow is shown below a sentence, a blank line must follow the arrow.

            (b) Select the appropriate symbols from the following list and observe the rules of usage given below. When these symbols are used in a text, they must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

            dots 2-3-5-6 beginning of arrow shaft shown above sentence
            dots 1-2-4-5 beginning of arrow shaft shown below sentence
            dots 2-5 arrow shaft
            dots 2-4-6 arrowhead pointing to left
            dots 1-3-5 arrowhead pointing to right

              [1] The appropriate symbol for the beginning of the arrow shaft must be placed above or below the first letter of the word from which the arrow points.

              [2] The appropriate arrowhead symbol must be placed above or below the first letter of the word to which the arrow points.

              [3] An unspaced line of arrow shaft symbols must be inserted to connect the beginning of arrow shaft symbol and the arrowhead symbol.

              [4] To be effective, the entire arrow and that part of the diagrammed sentence affected by the arrow must be contained on a single braille line. It is often possible to achieve this placement by adjusting the length of the braille line that precedes the arrow. When such an arrangement cannot be made, omit the arrow and insert a transcriber's note similar to the following.

                   In print an arrow leads from the word ______ to the word _____.

            (c) Arrows with multiple shafts. The appropriate symbol for the beginning of each arrow shaft must be placed above or below the first letter of the word from which the arrow points.

            (d) Arrows with underlined words. When any of the words or phrases that are related by an arrow are also underlined, the arrow must be placed above the sentence and it must point to the first letter of the underlined word or phrase. Braille words showing single, multiple, or colored underlining according to the provisions given in Rule 3, Section 1d(3).

            (e) Arrows with circled words, words in boxes. If the text shows a relationship between circled or boxed words and another part of the sentence by means of an arrow, braille the circled or boxed words according to Rule 3, Section 3.

          (2) Spatial sentence diagrams showing underscoring, vertical and/or diagonal lines. Diagrams that show the words of a sentence placed above or along various horizontal, vertical, or diagonal lines must be transcribed as directed below.

            (a) Preceding the transcription of the diagram, the sentence must be written in contracted braille, starting in cell one with runovers in cell 3. When explanation of a sentence or diagram is required, insert a transcriber's note before the sentence. Wherever possible, the sentence and diagram should be placed on the same braille page.

            (b) Spacing. Braille words or letters in the sentence must be no closer than one-eighth inch to any line in the diagram.

            (c) Diagram lines. The types of lines shown in print, as well as their direction and extent, must be reproduced as exactly as possible. However, all words or phrases in the diagram must be brailled horizontally-never vertically or diagonally.

              [1] Under no circumstances should braille symbols be used to make diagonal lines

              [2] It is preferable that diagram lines be drawn using a spur wheel or other special tool, or that they be formed by means of collage.

              [3] When necessary, print diagram lines may be represented by the following symbols.

              dots 2-5 single or light horizontal line
              dots 2-3-5-6 double or heavy horizontal line
              dot 4dots 1-2-5-6 single or light vertical line separating items on a single braille line
              dots 1-2-5-6dots 1-2-5-6 double or heavy vertical line separating items on a single braille line
              dots 4-5-6 vertical line spanning two or more braille lines
              NOTE: Each of the vertical line symbols must be preceded and followed by a blank cell.

            (d) Keying technique. To avoid dividing a diagram that cannot be contained in the width of the braille page, the keying technique described below may be used.

              [1] Assign consecutive numbers, brailled without periods, to represent parts of the diagram. These numbers must be inserted in the braille diagram at the points where the word(s) they replace appear in the print diagram.

              [2] A transcriber's note containing the key, i.e., a listing of the numbers with corresponding diagram parts, must be placed between the first writing of the sentence in contracted braille and the diagram. A blank line must precede and follow this key. In the key, numbers must begin in cell 1, followed after one blank cell by the word or words of the sentence that they replace. Runovers, if any, must begin in cell 3.

              [3] The closing transcriber's note symbol must be placed after the last item in the key listing.



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