BRL: Braille through Remote Learning

Intro to Braille Course

Session 8 page

Session Topics
  • Part-word Contractions
    Session Exercises
  • Writing.
  • Reading
    Other BRL Courses
  • Transcribers Course
  • Special Codes Course

    BRL Reference Desk
  • Summary of Rules
  • Contractions Lookup
  • Contractions List
  • Braille only contractions
  • Problem Words
  • Webster's Dictionary
  • Braille Formats (BANA rules for transcribing textbooks)
  • Reading List

    Other Resources
  • Contact instructor
  • Online gradebook
  • Main BRL page
  • Flashcard program (Java)
  • Downloadable Software
  • Braille Supplies

    Other Links
  • American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
  • Braille Authority of North America (BANA)
  • National Braille Association (NBA)
  • National Library Service (NLS, Library of Congress)

  • Session 8: Part-word Contractions

    In this session, we contine the study of part-word contractions. There are about 60 contractions that are presented in this section. A large number of them, specifically the 33 initial-letter contractions, are mostly used as whole word contractions, but can be used as parts of words. The other 26 part-word contractions presented in this session are predominately, but not exclusively, used as parts of words.

    At the risk of overstating what should be obvious by now, a bit of advice is repeated below:

    You cannot be a good braillist without owning a well-used quality dictionary.

    A team of volunteers has prepared a list of typical problem words for your use from this page and from the main braille page. Reading this list is an education in itself. With your dictionary in hand, it is instructive to look a a variety of words in this list, try to figure out why a particular contraction or series of contractions is being used.

    As in the first session on part-word contractions, there exist several categories or groups of part-word contractions. Each group has similarities to all part-word contractions (regarding rules) as well as their own idiosyncrasies. The groups are:

    1. Part-word lower-sign contractions: in, en, be, con,dis,com
    2. Double-letter lower-sign contractions: bb, cc, dd, ff, gg, eas
    3. Final-letter contractions: ound, ance, ence, ong, ful, sion, tion, ation, less, ness, ount, ment, ity, ally
    4. Initial-letter contractions: use as part-word contractions

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