BRL: Braille through Remote Learning
Reference Desk

Main BRL page

BANA publications
  • English Braille, American Edition 1994
  • Braille Formats
  • Chemistry 1997
  • Music 1997
  • Nemeth Mathematics 1972
    Reference Sheets
  • Summary of Rules
  • Contractions List
  • Braille contractions
  • Typical Problem words

    Interactive Resources:
  • Contraction Lookup
    Contact developers

    Copyright © 1996, 1997,1998,1999, 2000 The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc., All rights reserved.


    2. Choice between Alternative Contractions

    1. Preference is given to the contraction that saves the most space.

      me(and)(er) not M(ea)nd(er)(th)(ence) not (the)nce
      (one)(ness) not on(en)essbub(ble) not bu(bb)le
      (with)(er) not wi(the)rn(ation) not na(tion)

    2. Contractions and, for, of, the, and with are used in preference to any other contractions unless more space would be used.

      e(ar)(the)n not e(ar)(th)(en)bro(the)r not bro(th)(er)
      ba(the)d not ba(th)(ed)

    3. One-cell contractions are usd in preference to two-cell contractions.

      adh(er)(en)t not ad(here)nt(st)on(ed) not (st)(one)d
      prison(er) not pris(one)r(sh)ad(ow) not s(had)(ow)
      ha(dd)ock not (had)dockphon(ed) not ph(one)d

      Exceptions: the ence contraction is used before the letters d and r.

      (com)m(ence)d not (com)m(en)c(ed)f(ence)r not f(en)c(er)

    4. Any one-cell contraction is used in preference to the double-letter or ea contractions.

      sac(ch)(ar)(in)e not sa(cc)h(ar)(in)ep(ed)dle not pe(dd)le
      (of)f(er) not o(ff)(er)af(for)d not a(ff)ord
      hob(ble) not ho(bb)lede(ar) not d(ea)r

    5. Preference is given to the contraction that more nearly approximates correct pronunciation.

      (wh)(er)(ever) not (where)v(er)(wh)(er)e'(er) not (where)'(er)
      di(spirit)(ed) not (dis)pirit(ed)